Both functionalists and conflict theorists view education differently.
Functionalists stress the importance of education in transmitting culture, maintaining social control, promoting social and political integration and bringing about or stimulating social change and modernization. This approach dominated the analysis of education in the early post-war decades. Critics from the New Right movement have focused on the charge that schools and colleges fail to prepare people for jobs.
Feminist’s sociologists have begun to investigate the role of school in reinforcing gender stereotypes among children.
Gender differences have recently attracted the attention of sociologists.
Young child learned knowledge and skills, what they needed to know about the day-to-day life and trade of their parents informally by imitating the older members of society.
In these societies, the training of new members about the adult roles was accomplished informally, but in more complex societies of industrial type required great and diverse formal systematic training for which societal educational institutions of modern types slowly developed, along with the specialized role of teacher.It was found that girls do better than boys until adolescence.The results of Secondary/Senior Secondary Board examinations reveal that girls get good grades at these examinations.Yet until about a century and a half ago, and even more recently, the children of the wealthy (kings, aristocrats, zamindars, etc.) were frequently educated by private tutors.Most of the population continued to have no schooling whatsoever until the first few decades of the 19th century when systems of primary schools began to be started in Europe and elsewhere.In modem society people not only have to be furnished with basic skills, such as reading, writing and calculating, but they must also have a general knowledge of their physical, social and economic environment.The process of industrialization and expansion of cities served to increase demands for specialized schooling.Educational sociologists looked at schools as agencies of cultural production and purveyors of a hidden curriculum.They have contended that a wide range of material, cultural and cognitive factors likely to depress intellectual development.They view education as an instrument of elite domination.They believe that educational system is used by the elite to maintain their social position.