Numerous studies have shown that children growing up with violence are more likely to become survivors themselves or perpetrators of violence in the future.
One characteristic of gender-based violence is that it knows no social or economic boundaries and affects women and girls of all socio-economic backgrounds: this issue needs to be addressed in both developing and developed countries.
The violence has been so oppressive that it has tended to push reports and analyses into one of two directions, either to identify causal agencies exclusively within the recalcitrance of traditional society (« resurgence of tribalism ») or otherwise to trace them to the corrupting influence of modernity and other external factors.
At the same time it has discouraged analyses that appear to be on a « lesser scale » than the problem, except as partial byproducts of larger, encompassing events.
In a slightly different form I gave this paper at two conferences, the American Anthropological Association's 1991 annual conference and the Matrilineality and Patrilineality conference at the University of Minnesota, 1992.
I am grateful for helpful comments at the History of Women's Workshop, University of Minnesota, 1993, and thank the editors of the present volume for their constructive comments. Department of Anthropology, College of Liberal Arts, Minneapolis.
Decreasing violence against women and girls requires a community-based, multi-pronged approach, and sustained engagement with multiple stakeholders.
The most effective initiatives address underlying risk factors for violence, including social norms regarding gender roles and the acceptability of violence.
STRATEGY The World Bank is committed to addressing gender-based violence through investment, research and learning, and collaboration with stakeholders around the world.
Since 2003, the World Bank has engaged with countries and partners to support projects and knowledge products aimed at preventing and addressing GBV.