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However, it is conventional to place the primary source first when primary and secondary sources are cited in a single footnote, regardless of alphabetical order. If you started your assignment before this academic year (2015/16), please check your department's student handbook for any specific guidance on referencing using a footnote style as it may differ from the guidance below in some respects.
At the end of the essay, a bibliography includes all texts cited in the essay and all sources that have influenced your thinking on the essay.
This page briefly describes: then automatically places that footnote number at the foot of the page and continues to number consecutively throughout the essay.
Examples Alan Bryman, Social research methods, 4th edn (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012), p.21.
Katherine Foxhall, ‘Fever, immigration and quarantine in New South Wales, 1837–1840’, Social History of Medicine, 24, no.3 (2011), pp.624-42 (p.625). Cull, Projecting empire: imperialism and popular cinema (London: I B Tauris, 2009), chapter 2.
The Traditional Footnoting System requires that the footnote numerals be placed at the end of the sentence, directly after the full stop.
The superscripted numerals direct the reader to references at the bottom of the page.
This then separates the footnote number from the text, making the footnotes more readable: Back to top of page You may show that the same information is supported in more than one source of information, so you put more than one author in a single footnote.
The order of citation is alphabetical according to authors’ surnames.
Return to the top of the page The first time you refer to a source, full details should be given.
If you are referring to the same work in the immediately following footnote you can use ibid instead of writing the full reference.