Unit 3 Marketing Coursework

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David Wengrow has argued that branding became necessary following the urban revolution in ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th century BCE, when large-scale economies started mass-producing commodities such as alcoholic drinks, cosmetics and textiles.The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange, bartering systems were commonplace and the economy was characterised by local trading.Braudel reports that, in 1600, goods travelled relatively short distances - grain 5–10 miles; cattle 40–70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20–40 miles.Marketing practitioners engage in innovative practices that capture the attention of marketing scholars who codify and disseminate such practices.At the same time, marketing academics often develop new research methods or theories that are subsequently adopted by practitioners.These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding.Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which over time were transformed into clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality.In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer which were understood to convey information about product quality.Not all historians agree that these markings can be compared with modern brands or labels.Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection, utility and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions" (p. She has shown that amphoras used in Mediterranean trade between 1500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which provided information for transactions.Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE.

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