Thomas Hobbes was the first person to come up with the idea of a social contract in his text, Leviathan.
As with any concept in history, other political philosophers have used Hobbes’ theory as a stepping-stone.
There is no ability for men to ensure the satisfaction of their needs and desires as humans, and no prolonged systems of cooperation among men.
The state of nature is a state of constant fear and distrust, or as Hobbes puts it “a state of perpetual and unavoidable war” (Hobbes 90).
Hobbes believed that political authority is based on the self-interest of the members of the society, all of who are considered equal.
He argued that no single individual had the power to rule over the rest.
Both authors sought out to refute the positions presented by Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha, regarding the issue of the Divine Right of Kings.
Filmer believed that God gave absolute authority to the king.
Since God gives the power to the king, political society focused on obeying God unconditionally.
Although Hobbes did agree that it was necessary for a king to have absolute authority in order to keep the people in line, he believed that authority came from the people living in the community and not God.