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The de-oiled cake and in-situ cake were torrefied (slow pyrolysis) to convert the residue into a high energy density solid bio-char, which can be used as a feedstock to produce heat energy.Microalgae can be used as a source of biofuel and food supplements, however, their exploitation is lacking due to various bottlenecks including realistic processing options at scale.
The hydraulic pressing (10-100 bars) with and without LN2 treatment was also found with promising results with more than 90 % cell disruption.
The extracted algal lipids physical and chemical properties were found in an agreement with previous workers.
Oil extraction from the feedstock is one of the most energy intensive parts of the process in the production chain.
Oil extraction methods are influenced by the operational physical parameters or chemical characteristics, and their selection greatly impacts the final oil yields.
The extracted oil fatty acid profile showed favourable properties to convert the oil into biodiesel.
In-situ transesterification of flaxseed was conducted and 93 % was converted into biodiesel.
The microwave treatment was found the most energy efficient method with a higher percentage of cell disruption as compared the other treatments.
The microwave treatment, was chosen to enhance the lipid extraction with an organic solvent extraction from dry powdered and wet algal paste.
From this work, there is clearly significant benefit to using advanced processes for oil extraction such as HTL or microwave enhanced processing.
Compared to other parts of the extraction process, such as energy used for drying, the use of a microwave has been shown to be economically viable.