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The thesis challenges the validity of this viewpoint by critiquing regulatory risk assessment and the peer review and advisory processes that have shaped RF/MW regulation.
It will be shown that these processes have been prone to political manipulation and conflicts of interests leading to various scientific perspectives being marginalised with reluctance on the part of regulators to make decisions that might inconvenience industry interests.
The study thus culminates in an equation that relates the conserved charge to the memory effect.
2.1 While radio waves and other forms of electromagnetic energy have been in use for decades, the recent dramatic increase in the use of mobile phones, the visible proliferation of mobile phone towers and antennas and accompanying anecdotal and scientific studies showing biological and possibly health effects associated with these structures, have led to increased public concern about the safety of mobile phones and other telecommunications technologies.
It stated that ‘because of its equivocal nature, the data base for RF emissions has limited value.
It may be dangerous to make general statements on safety based on lack of evidence of harmful effects when so little relevant research has been carried out’.2.5 Exposure to non-ionising radiation, at exposure levels sufficient to cause heating above 1ºC, is known to cause adverse health effects. Knowledge about and acceptance of the effects of non-thermal exposure to electromagnetic radiation remains limited and contentious.2.6 As stated earlier, a number of expert reviews of the literature have been conducted, which have drawn the following conclusions in relation to the health effects of non-ionising radiation, including radiofrequency radiation: CSIRO, 1994 This report concluded that there was insufficient reliable scientific evidence on which to base sound conclusions about safety of radio frequency (RF) exposures in telecommunications.Finally, the connection between the electromagnetic memory effect and the so-called asymptotic symmetries of U(1) gauge theory is analyzed.The memory effect is found to determine a large gauge transformation (LGT) in which the gauge parameter becomes a function of angles at null infinity.The study starts by a discussion on the fundamental aspects of electrodynamics as U(1) gauge invariant theory.Next, the tools of conformal compactification and Penrose diagram of Minkowski space are introduced. Starting with Maxwell's equations, a partial differential equation is derived, in which the two-sphere divergence of the memory vector depends on the total charge flux F that reaches the null infinity and the initial and final values of the radial component of the electric field.After these preliminaries, the electromagnetic analog of gravitational-wave memory, first analyzed by L. The memory vector is then found to consist of two parts: the ordinary memory vector and the null memory vector.The solution of Bieri and Garfinkle for the null memory vector is reproduced by expanding the flux F in terms of spherical harmonics.Many studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between radiofrequency radiation and biological and health effects, however to date, the results have been inconclusive.2.2 Several recent expert reviews provide an analysis of the relevant scientific literature, with last year’s UK Stewart Report considered the most comprehensive so far.