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Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions.Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Primary interventions aim to prevent the causal factors of stress, secondary interventions aim to reduce the severity or duration of symptoms, and tertiary or reactive interventions aim to provide rehabilitation and maximise functioning among those with chronic health conditions .
Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism.
The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews.
The number of people committing suicide rose by 329 to 5,706 in 2008.
The rate among men increased from 16.8 per 100,000 in 2007 to 17.7 per 100,000 in 2008.
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In order to consider the evidence base, there needs to be some agreement on the meaning of work stress.
A popular model of stress considers “inputs” such as job characteristics; for example, excess demands, low control, poor social support, adverse life events such as bereavement or divorce, and additional demands outside of work such as carer responsibilities for a dependent relative or spouse [7–10].
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health in the US (NIOSH)  estimate the following: Given the global recession, financial strain, and job losses, greater work stress might have adverse consequences in UK.
The most recent data from the NHS information centre in UK suggest an increase in the suicide rate for the first time since 1998.