For example, evolutionary biologists have been long puzzled by cases of apparent altruism in certain animal societies: sterile workers in insect colonies, warning calls, resource sharing, and many others (see Darwin, 1859, pp. Such behaviors appear to incur a cost to the cooperating or altruistic organisms, which would seem to make them impossible to evolve by natural selection.
For example, evolutionary biologists have been long puzzled by cases of apparent altruism in certain animal societies: sterile workers in insect colonies, warning calls, resource sharing, and many others (see Darwin, 1859, pp. Such behaviors appear to incur a cost to the cooperating or altruistic organisms, which would seem to make them impossible to evolve by natural selection.Tags: Using Contractions In A Formal EssayBerklee Essay Prompt 2012Pure Water Business PlanSouthern Miss Application EssayStony Brook Essay ApplicationEssays For FrankensteinOnline Travel Agency Business Plan
For these reasons, sexual minorities should be cautious about embracing biological arguments in order to secure greater social and political freedoms.
As sociobiology is based on the theory of evolution, Wilson’s book analyzed the social behaviour of animals, thus asserting that their social adaptations can be compared to the social behaviours of human-beings (Clark, 1991).
This essay questions the efficacy of this argumentative strategy.
The essay demonstrates that biological theories about male homosexuality may not facilitate the efforts of gay rights advocates.
Advocates of sociobiology tend to see humans as just another species of animal and as part of nature, whereas its critics tend to envision humans as radically different from animals and as separate from nature.
These competing conceptions of nature and of reason, morality, and culture obviously extend far beyond the ‘Sociobiology Wars’ (see, e.g., the entry on evolutionary epistemology), but the disagreements are especially acute here (see Holcomb, 1993).
As the above example demonstrates, sociobiologists are engaged in the construction and evaluation of theoretical models of evolutionary change and in the empirical testing of aspects of those models for particular cases.
The result is an expansion of standard Darwinian evolutionary theory (which traditionally explains morphological adaptation) to a new domain: namely, animal sociality.
Further developments in the 1980s allowed evolutionary biologists to model more complex social dynamics (e.g., Axelrod and Hamilton, 1981; Maynard Smith, 1982; for a fuller treatment, see the entry on biological altruism).
Sociobiologists then tested the explanatory adequacy of particular models for a given case by independently testing some of their parameter values and underlying assumptions.