A centuries old debate for societies has been whether the ‘success’ is distributed fairly across its members.If it is due to luck, then why is person A more privileged than person B who would Defenders of equality of opportunity base their moral arguments on merit such that as far as we eliminate the factors of race, caste, sexual orientation and other ‘inborn’ factors, all people can make their way up (or down) (Arneson, 2002).By equality, we generally mean that all men are equal and all should be entitled to identity of treatment and income.
All citizens must possess similar political rights, they should have similar voice in the working of the government and they should have equal opportunities to actively participate in the political life and affairs of the country. “Political equality is therefore, never real unless it is accompanied with virtual economic liberty; political power otherwise is bound to be the hand-maid of economic power”.
Political equality guarantees the enjoyment of similar political rights to all citizens. Universal adult suffrage has been introduced in India. According Lord Bryce, Economic Equality “is the attempt to expunge all differences in wealth’ allotting to every man and woman an equal share in worldly goods”.
We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal”. No two men are similar in physical constitution, capacity and temperament.
Professor Laski has very aptly remarked in this connection:“Equality does not mean the identity of treatment or the sameness of reward.
Social equality means that all the citizens are entitled to enjoy equal status in society and no one is entitled to special privileges. declared the charter of human rights which laid stress on social equality.
There should not be any distinction of caste and creed, colour and race, groups and classes, clans and tribes All should have an equal opportunity to develop his personality. Untouchability has been abolished and its practice has been forbidden. But these rights have been violated by a number of countries in the past according to the report of Amnesty International. Civil liberty consists in the enjoyment of similar civil liberties and civil rights by all the citizens.Rule of law is in force in England and in the eyes of the rule of law all are equal. Economic Equality is closely related to political equality.Equal treatment is given to all by the rule of law. By Political Equality we mean equal access of everyone to the avenues of political authority. Professor Laski underlies the great significance of economic equality.For example, certain profession may require certain skills and knowledge, in this case the hiring decision can only be made based on those values leaving race, gender and family history out of the question.What if a job requires a large social network, then is it not the case that candidates from affluent families have an advantage because they tend to have more influential connections?It has insisted that individuals should be equal before the law, that when the general law confers rights or imposes duties, the rights and duties shall extend to all; or conversely that they shall not confer special privileges on particular individuals or groups”.Undoubtedly, it implies fundamentally a leveling process”, says Professor Laski, “It means that no man shall be placed in society that he can overreach his neighbour to the extent which constitutes a denial of the latter’s citizenship”.Previously, the policy of racial discrimination was adopted in the United States of America but Johnson I, Ex-President of U. A., established social equality by getting the Bill passed by the Congress. Civil laws should treat all the individuals equally. Previously, Switzerland had not conferred on women the right to vote but in February 1971 conferred the right of vote to women.The policy of racial discrimination is still followed by South Africa. There should not be any discrimination of superior and inferior, the rich and the poor, caste and creed, colour and race, clam and tribes, groups and classes. In Asia and Africa there are many countries where Political Equality has not been established.He further says, “We are thus arranged as it were, in a level time at the starting point of the race that lies ahead; and we start from that level line, so far as the state is concerned, with equal conditions guaranteed to each for making the best of himself-however much we may eventually differ in what we actually make of ourselves”.There are following kinds of equality: (4) Economic Equality.(5) Equality of Opportunity and Education.