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“ on collaborative memory is that the memory of groups is compared with that of individuals. group performance should not be compared with individual performance but rather with ‘nominal groups’ comprised of pooled, non-redundant data from the same number of people tested individually.” 8. Most research involving the Experimentally Induced Information methodology seeks to identify the influence of misinformation presented by one witness to another, and therefore the assumption is made that discussion between witnesses is a detrimental process. “While the misinformation effect is a well-established phenomenon, ‘what remains in dispute is the nature of a satisfactory theoretical explanation’ (ref.). Therefore, in order to understand why memory conformity occurs, we must draw from both cognitive research on memory and social research on conformity.
Because such ‘contamination’ is common to memory, understanding its effects enables greater knowledge of memory itself (ref.). Discusses one key paper at a time by describing its methods and key findings, but then identifies weaknesses in the method and/or limitations in the findings.
Then discusses how the next researchers tried to address these problems.
I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review.
In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g.
“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.
Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.“One study has shown that eyewitness errors are the most common cause of false convictions (ref.).Almost all innocent individuals exonerated by DNA evidence had been convicted primarily as a result of erroneous eyewitness evidence (ref.) Consequently, a great deal of research has focussed on the unreliability of eyewitness testimony (refs.).” , such a narrow focus may not fully explain how people remember (ref.). Reviews the chronological development of research in this area (an approach that is useful at times, but not always the best).It focuses on a of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations.It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. This guide has been created for to supplement your library instruction session. If you need more assistance, please don't hesitate to contact a librarian. the results obtained from studies using stories and word lists as stimuli can be generalised to forensic contexts.” …“That is, the differences found between individuals and groups could simply be due to the participants giving their reports for a second time …” …