Samantha Hindle Thesis

Samantha Hindle Thesis-16
37 2.5.1 Dynamic body acceleration ................................................................................... 37 2.5.2 Time-activity budgets and activity-specific energy expenditures .........................41 2.5.3 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 45 Chapter 3: Do flipper stroke rates and amplitudes accurately predict energy expenditure in foraging northern fur seals and Antarctic fur seals? 47 3.1 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 47 3.2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 48 3.3 Material and methods ................................................................................................... 49 3.3.1 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 49 3.3.2 Energy expenditure, diving and foraging parameters, and time-activity budgets .I also sought to develop new accelerometry-based methods to easily determine fine-scale energy expenditure at sea (Ve DBA and flipper stroke metrics).

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Energy expenditure for each foraging trip was measured using the doubly-labeled water method, and energy gained while foraging was determined from 1) diet composition (scat hard-parts and DNA) and blood stable isotope ratios; and 2) numbers of prey capture attempts (from head acceleration).

Maternal investment in pups was determined from pup growth rates or from energy content of milk samples.

DNA-metabarcoding measures of northern fur seal scats were performed in collaboration with Austen Thomas (Chapter 4).

Identification of scat hard part remains were performed by Pacific ID Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada for northern fur seal scats, and in collaboration with Yves Cherel at the CEBC, CNRS France for Antarctic fur seal scats (Chapters 4, 5, & 6).

14 2.1 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 14 2.2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 15 2.3 Material and methods ................................................................................................... 17 2.3.1 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 17 2.3.2 Daily energy expenditure – doubly-labeled water method ....................................

19 2.3.3 Diving and foraging behaviour parameters ...........................................................

50 3.3.3 Flipper strokes ....................................................................................................... 50 3.3.4 Statistical analyses ................................................................................................. 53 3.4 Results .......................................................................................................................... 54 3.5 Discussion ..................................................................................................................... 59 3.5.1 Underwater locomotion ......................................................................................... 60 3.5.2 Full foraging trip locomotion ................................................................................

62 vi 3.5.3 Flipper stroke cost versus cost of transportation ...................................................

20 2.3.4 Time-activity budget .............................................................................................. 21 v 2.3.5 Dynamic body acceleration ...................................................................................

23 2.3.6 Statistical analyses ................................................................................................. 24 2.4 Results .......................................................................................................................... 26 2.4.1 Relationship between total energy expenditure and total DBA.............................

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