Research Paper Chemistry

Research Paper Chemistry-45
The first paper seen in Europe was of Arabian manufacture.

The first paper seen in Europe was of Arabian manufacture.

During a lecture in Germany 30 years earlier, Herty had heard that the sulfite process could be applied to the Tannenbaum the Germans used as Christmas trees.

Herty reasoned that, like these trees, younger pines in the southern United States would be less gummy than mature ones.

The creation of actual paper is fixed some three millennia later, around A. His recipes remained closely guarded secrets for at least a few hundred years, but the ingredients likely included cotton rags as well as mulberry and hemp. Because Arab regions lacked good supplies of wood or other fibrous plants, their cultures developed paper made almost entirely from textile scraps.

That innovation qualifies Ts’ai-Lun’s material as the first modern paper. Although these papermakers did not beat the cloth very finely by today’s standards, they achieved a smooth writing surface by coating both sides with starch paste.

Less than a year after Charles Herty opened his research lab, a Georgia weekly called the Soperton News printed its March 31, 1933, edition on experimental paper made from southern pine trees.

Seven months later, nine other newspapers followed suit.Herty built his research facility and pilot plant with funds provided by a Savannah businessman, the state of Georgia, and the Chemical Foundation, a nonprofit organization established after World War I.He directed his new lab to make pine into the pulp that would become paper, using acidic sulfite solutions to digest the wood, remove impurities and increase the effectiveness of bleaching agents.Herty had saved these forests in 1903 by inventing a new method of extracting resin, used to make turpentine, that did not scar and damage the trees.Now, he turned to chemistry to address another concern: the high level of resin in the pines’ wood, which was believed to block the bleaching with acidic sulfite solutions needed to make white paper.The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans first mimicked such techniques around 3,000 B. They stripped off the outer bark of papyrus — from which we derive the word "paper" — and beat the marsh plant’s soft pith to break up the fibers. The result was a tough, durable writing surface, as expensive to buy as it was labor-intensive to make.But this process did not create the chemical bonds that the wasp had achieved. The historical record describes a courtier named Ts’ai-Lun who practiced papermaking techniques in the Hunan province of China. The Arabs likely acquired the technique in the Samarkand region of Uzbekistan around A. 750 — as the story goes, they captured Chinese papermakers in battle and extracted a demonstration.The newsprint that became the history-making edition of the Soperton News was a product of Herty’s ability to inspire: his staff, who split into two 12-hour shifts and worked seven days a week to make enough pulp for the test; the newspaper publishers, who bought into his dream at per ton knowing their established northern suppliers charged per ton; and the businessmen who provided cold storage and refrigerated train cars to transport the pulp to a Canadian mill, whose owners produced the finished paper at no cost to Herty. Fifteen pulp and paper mills were built in the southern United States between 19, simultaneously breathing life into the South’s devastated economy and slowing the destruction of the North’s hardwood forests.Back to top True paper requires a chemical interaction between its fibers.For decades the prevailing wisdom held that southern pines were too gummy to be used for anything but cardboard and other brown paper.The forest and white paper industries had been built around the less sappy—and quickly dwindling—hardwoods of the northern United States and Canada.

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