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For example, peanuts have a higher weight content of protein than fish or eggs, but the proportion of essential amino acids in peanut protein is only a third of that from the two other sources.For reasons that will become evident when discussing the structures of proteins and peptides, each amino acid is assigned a one or three letter abbreviation.Hydrolysis of proteins by boiling aqueous acid or base yields an assortment of small molecules identified as α-aminocarboxylic acids.
This animation covers the major stages of protein synthesis.
It takes you from how the information in the DNA is transcribed into m RNA to how this message is translated into amino acids and a protein product.
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You see the processes of transcription and translation and the key roles different RNAs play as messenger and transfer molecules.
Finally, we explain how the string of amino acids becomes a complex protein product by folding into its specific 3D shape.
Carbohydrates are roughly 50% oxygen, and like the lipids, usually have less than 5% nitrogen (often none at all).
Proteins and peptides, on the other hand, are composed of 15 to 25% nitrogen and about an equal amount of oxygen.