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HOWEVER it only refuses to give a ruling if the issue of EC law is manifestly inapplicable to the dispute (C-364/96 ICI).
The 'acte clair' doctrine says that if a national court considers the issue so clear that no reference to the ECJ is required.
See CILFIT for an elaboration on when the acte clair doctrine is appropriately applied.
Several options for reform: o Limiting the types of national court empowered to make a reference o Filtering mechanism based on the novelty, complexity or importance of question Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our European Law Notes.
W poszukiwaniu remedium na bezradność jednostki wobec unikania przez sądy krajowe pytań prejudycjalnych do TSUE – stanowisko ETPCz i sądów konstytucyjnych państw członkowskich. Indeed, national courts of last instance have a crucial role according to the devolution to national judges of the task of ensuring, in collaboration with the CJEU, the full application of EU law in all Member States and the judicial protection of individuals’ rights under EU law. See, Certainly, one may argue that Constitutional Courts do not enjoy jurisdiction to solve a conflict which arises between EU and national law. It is interesting to note that as far as fundamental rights are concerned, the constitutional review seems to limit, more than when other interests are involved, the margin of discretion of the court of last instance when deciding whether or not to refer. Vf Slg U 466/11) the Austrian Constitutional Court held, in essence, that its constitutional review applies to the provisions of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Charter). Or, how can they be convinced that the CJEU will interpret the issue in the same sense, bearing in mind the dynamic nature of its case law?
It is for the ECJ to decide whether a body is a court or tribunal and hence whether the ECJ may answer the reference questions.
Didactic Program In Dietetics Coursework - Preliminary Reference Procedure Essay
This presents difficulties for things like arbitration panels.
Mancini and Keeling see this as sensible: The ECJ is giving the national courts the power to do lawfully what they could otherwise do unlawfully anyway (by ignoring art.234) and subjecting it to certain conditions.
This is part of the give and take relationship between ECJ and national courts.
This theory was impliedly endorsed in Da Costa v ENEL and affirmed in Lyckskog C-99/100 It is for the national courts to decide if art. However if the question of law has already been answered by the court then the ECJ may just restate the substance of a former case (Da Costa).
In CILFIT the ECJ held that the existence of a ruling on the question raised absolved a * * * * * * court of the requirement to refer to the ECJ under 234(3).