According to APA guidelines, signal verbs should be written in the past tense, for all quotes.But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message. But if some sources are more relevant to the idea than others, you might list the sources in order of relevance: Scholars have long advanced the idea that political and economic forces undergird how narratives are shaped (Jameson; Poovey; Cohen). You could also provide the page number for the quotation in parentheses and then insert an endnote about the paraphrase: Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” . Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. It may, however, be better to revise: Karl Marx said that a commodity is a strange object (47). The following examples paraphrase information presented by Pfanner and cite his article as the source of the information, . For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S.This must be done with most of the words if not all of them, and especially with those that can easily be replaced:.Yet the version above is still too close to the original to be an adequate paraphrase.The entry of women into such fields—whether grammar school teaching or office work—drove down wages.”, the “feminization” of jobs in the nineteenth century had two major effects: a lack of employment opportunities for women and inadequate compensation for positions that were available.Thus, while clerical and teaching jobs indicated a boom in these sectors, women were forced to apply for jobs that would pay them less than male workers were paid (p. In addition to using synonyms, you should change syntax, or word order.To do this, consider what the sentence is trying to communicate and then rephrase it in your own words: changing the meaning.So the last thing to do is to smooth it out: not harmonious.This phrase emphasizes the subjectivity of Lipsius's approach to the writings, and we have retained the same idea in our version: he ignores "whatever strikes him" as incompatible, not whatever incompatible.