Climatically, Pakistan has dry, hot summers in general, and cool winters, with very cold winters in the northernmost Himalayan regions.
Most of the Punjab plains receive on the average 15 inches (375 mm) of rain annually, which progressively decreases to the west from the Indian summer monsoons.
The government has even seriously flirted with reforming how the Federally Administered Tribal Areas are governed.
The current codes date back to the colonial era and are ill-suited to a modern democracy.
Much of Baluchistan and the Thar Desert receive on the average, less than 5 inches (127 mm) of rainfall in a year.
Mean temperatures for the summer range from 66°F (18°C) in winter to 86°F (38°C) in summer.As a poor offspring of the subcontinent, Pakistan at independence in 1947 inherited a disproportionally small share of its assets, and a larger share of its liabilities; one-fifth of the area and the highways, about one- sixth of the population and railroads, one-seventh of the cultivated land, a tenth of the army, a small minority of the educated middle class, relatively few of the shopkeepers, tradesmen and professional classes, hardly any industrial workers, very few of the known minerals, a small fraction of the industrial equipment, only a few mills for the cotton crop, and only one major port: Karachi.The separation of the deficit area of Bangladesh in 1971 did strengthen the food situation of the truncated state and reduced its population problem, but at the same time diminished the revenue base of the export of jute and tea.But despite the litany of shortcomings, the PPP’s achievements are remarkable.For one, the serving parliament has passed more legislation than any other in Pakistan’s history.The Thar Desert lies in southeastern Pakistan, and is an extension of the adjacent Great Indian Desert.Much of the desert region is a sandy wasteland, parts of which near the Indus River have been made suitable for farming by the irrigation schemes.India could, if it wishes, gain control over the water of Pakistan’s canals by diverting water to its own territory, thus virtually choking off Pakistan’s agricultural base.(The two countries reached an agreement in 1960, the Indus Waters Treaty, regarding the distribution of waters)This example of Pakistani dependence on India, which controls the headwaters of the tributaries of the Indus River, critical to Pakistan’s irrigated agriculture, illustrates the complementary nature of the two countries.The Northern and western Highlands cover much of northern and western parts of the country.It is a typical Himalayan region with high, rugged mountains, and several glaciers.