This shift has been enabled by several trends: The shift relies on an important tradeoff: although the RF performance of analog components on a CMOS chip is worse than that of discrete analog components, more sophisticated computation can compensate for these limitations.
Moreover, the capabilities of radios built using CMOS can be expected to continue to improve.
Today, we solve these same equations numerically on a digital computer, very quickly and at low cost.
In a similar way, for roughly 100 years, signals were transmitted in analog form (over wires or wirelessly) with a smoothly varying signal, representing the changing level and pitch of voice; the hue, saturation, and brightness of each point in a video image; and so forth.
Biography | Detailed CV | Books | Papers/Tech Reports | Most Cited Publications | Talks | Research Projects | Podcasts | Audio/Video Recordings | RTCA/SC203 Contributions | Wi MAX Forum Contributions | IEEE 802 Contributions | ATM Forum Contributions | ANSI Contributions | IETF Internet Drafts | ITU Contributions | OIF Contributions | External Tutorials | Patents | Past Memories | Photos | News Recent Talks: Extending Blockchains for Risk Management and Decision Making Introduction to 5G (Class Lecture) Trends and Issues in Softwarization of Networks: What's In, What's Out The Catch-up Game: Quest for the Impact Blockchains: The Revolutionary Trust Protocol Audio/Video Recordings of Lectures CSE570: Recent Advances in Networking (2018, 2015, 2013) | CSE567: Computer System Analysis (2017, 2015, 2013, 2011, 2008, and 2006) | CSE574: Wireless and Mobile Networks (2018, 2016, 2014, 2010, 2008, 2006) | CSE 571: Network Security: (2017, 2014, 2011, 2009, 2007) | CSE473: Introduction to Computer Networks (2016, 2011, 2010, 2009, and 2005) | CSE 591: Introduction to Graduate Study in CS (2018) Books: The Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis: Techniques for Experimental Design, Measurement, Simulation, and Modeling ( Instruction Slides, Errata) | High Performance TCP/IP Networking ( Instruction Slides) | Quality of Service Architectures for Wireless Networks: Performance Metrics and Management | FDDI Handbook: High-Speed Networking with Fiber and Other Media | Control-theoretic Formulation of Operating Systems Resource Management Policies CSE570: Recent Advances in Networking (2018) (2015, 2013 also available) Course Overview | Networking Trends | Data Center Network Topologies | Data Center Ethernet | Carrier IP: MPLS | Carrier Ethernet | Server and Storage Virtualization | Virtual Bridging | LAN Extension and Virtualization Using L3 Protocols | Virtual Routing Protocols | Internet of Things (Io T) | Data-Link Layer and Management Protocols for Io T | Networking Layer Protocols for Internet of Things: 6Lo WPAN and RPL | Messaging Protocols for Internet of Things: MQTT | Open Flow | Software Defined Networking (SDN) | Network Function Virtualization (NFV) | Networking Issues for Big Data | NETCONF, YIN and YANG, BEEP, and UML | Server Virtualization | Storage Virtualization | Application Delivery Networking | Multi-Tenant Isolation and Network Virtualization in Cloud Data Centers | Open Flow Controllers and Tools Student Reports: Protocols for Io T | Cloud Security | Io T Security | Machine Learning for Cloud Computing | Io T Datalink Protocols | Machine Learning for Io T | Multi-Clouds Security | SDN for 5G | Io T Security | Hadoop in Servers | Balloon Networking | Information-Centric Networking | Named Data Caching and Routing | Naming in Io T | Big Data | Data Center Networking | SDN Research | Semantic Web | Smart Grid | Green Networking Initiative | IP Based Smart Services | Broadband Aggregation Networks | Vehicular Networking CSE567: Computer System Analysis (2017) (2015, (2013, 2011, 2008, and 2006 are also available) Course Introduction | Common Mistakes | Selection of Techniques and Metrics | Art of Data Presentation | Summarizing Measured Data | Comparing Systems Using Random Data | Simple Linear Regression Models | Other Regression Models | Experimental Designs | 2**k Experimental Designs | Factorial Designs with Replication | Fractional Factorial Designs | One Factor Experiments | Two Factor Full Factorial Design w/o Replications | Two Factor Full Factorial Designs with Replications | General Full Factorial Designs | Introduction to Simulation | Analysis of Simulation Results | Random Number Generation | Introduction to Queueing Theory | Analysis of Single Queue | Queueing Networks | Operational Laws | Time Series Analysis | Heavy Tailed Distributions, Self-Similar Processes, and Long-Range Dependence | Types of Workloads | Workload Selection | Ratio Games | Testing Random Number Generators | Random Variate Generation | Mean-Value Analysis Student Reports: Cryptosystems in Multi-Cloud | Heterogenous System and CPU Platforms | Io T Security scheme | Cilk Locality Runtime | Anomaly Detection | NUMA Architecture | Ultrasonic Distance Sensor | Performance visualization | Multi-Cloud Management System | Allocating VMs in ONL | Wireless Transmitters | Performance of Big Data | Blocking analysis of spin locks | Wireless MAC protocols | spectropolarimetric imaging systems | Operating System Detectors | Cloud Computing Simulations and Testing | CCNx synchronization protocol | Multicore Processor | Big Data Benchmarking | Virtualized Systems | Do FP Polarimeter | Cloud Computing Platforms | Smart Grid | Hypervisors for Cloud Computing | Image Sensor | Laplace's Equation | Multi-core Processors | Named Data Networking | Packet Reception | Robotics Systems | Smart Phones | Social Networks | Bit Torrent | Wireless Sensor Networks | Open VPN | Sorting | Real-time Scan Conversion | Network Tracker for Bit Torrent | 6Lo WPAN | Statistical Modeling Tools | FPGA Benchmarks | Network Topology and Analysis | FPGA Programming Languages | Database Systems | Hardware Performance Analysis Tools | Beyond Visual Range Air Combat | Network Simulation Tools | Data Encryption Algorithms | Gamma-Ray Event Parameterization Application | MAC protocols | Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Techniques | Network Performance Monitoring Tools | Network Performance Monitoring Tools II | Network Performance Monitoring Tools | Network Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Tools II | Operating System and Process Monitoring Tools | Performance Analysis Tools | Processor workloads | Diversified Router | Wireless Sensor Networks | Software Performance Analysis Tools | Software Monitoring and Profiling Tools | Network Traffic Models | Network Traffic Models II | Network Traffic Models III | X-Sim: A Trace-Based Simulator | Thermally Adaptive Application CSE574: Wireless and Mobile Networks (2018): (2016, 2014, 2010, 2008, 2006 also available) Course Overview | Wireless and Mobile Networking: Facts, Statistics, and Trends | Wireless Coding and Modulation | Wireless Signal Propagation | IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs | Wireless LANs Part II: 802.11a/b/g/n/ac | 60 GHz Millimeter Wave Gigabit Wireless Networks | Vehicular Wireless Networks | Internet of Things | Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart | Wireless Personal Area Networks | Wireless Protocols for Io T: Part II - Zig Bee | Networking Layer Protocols for Internet of Things: 6Lo WPAN and RPL | Low Power WAN Protocols for Io T: IEEE 802.11ah, Lo Ra WAN | Introduction to Cellular Networks: 1G/2G/3G | LTE | LTE-Advanced | 5G | Wireless Physical Layer Concepts: Part I, Part II, Part III | Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks: Part I, Part II | Media Independent Handover | IEEE 802.22 Regional Area Network | Wireless Cellular Networks: 1G and 2G, 2.5G and 3G, Beyond 3G: HSDPA, HSUPA, HSPA, LTE | Aeronautical Wireless Networks | Mobile IP IPv4, IPv6 | TCP over Wireless | Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Routing | Wireless Sensor Networks | Wireless Mesh and Multi-Hop Relay Networks | Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID) | Quality of Service in Data Networks | Network Security Concepts: Review | Wireless Network Security | Energy Management in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Student Reports: Voice over LTE | Software-Defined Wireless Networks | Virtualization in Wireless | Energy Efficiency in Wireless | Wireless Power Transfer | Unmanned Aerial Vehicles | Security of Internet of Things | Wireless for Disaster Relief | Indoor Localization | Broadband Wireless Access | Cognitive Radios | Constrained Application Protocol | 802.16m and Wi MAX Rel 2.0 | CAPWAP Protocol | Femtocells | Long Term Evolution (LTE) | Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-Advanced) | Mobile Based Augmented Reality | Mobile Cloud Computing | Smart Grid I | Smart Grid II | Green Networking | Body Area Networks (BAN) | OSPF Extensions for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks | 4G IMT-Advanced | The 700 MHz Band | Wireless for Rural America | Long Term Evolution (LTE) & Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB) | Medical Applications of UWB | Medical Applications of Wireless Networks | Energy Efficient Wireless Protocols | Satellite Networking | Metropolitan and Regional Wireless Networks: 802.16, 802.20 and 802.22 | Wireless Personal Area Networks | RFID | Recent Advances in the Wireless Physical Layer | Location Management in Wireless Data Networks | Location Management in Wireless Cellular Networks | Time Synchronization in Wireless Networks | Power Management in Wireless Networks | Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Networks | Mobile IP | Network Mobility | Network Architectures for Mobility | IEEE802.21 Media Independent Handover Services | Qo S over Wi MAX | Qo S in Wireless Data Networks | Qo S in Cellular Networks | TCP Optimizations for Wireless | Vo IP/Multimedia over Wi MAX | Voice over Wireless | Security in Wireless Data Networks | Security In Wireless Cellular Networks | Aircraft Wireless Networks | Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication | Medical Applications of Wireless Networks CSE 571: Network Security (2017): (2014, 2011, 2009, 2007 also available) Course Overview | Network Security Overview | Block Encryption and DES | Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) | Block Cipher Operations | Random Bit Generation and Stream Ciphers | Number Theory | Public Key Cryptography | Other Public Key Cryptosystems | Cryptographic Hash Functions | Message Authentication Codes | Digital Signatures | Key Management and Distribution | User Authentication Protocols, AAA, Single-Sign On | Network Access Control and Cloud Security | Transport Level Security | Wireless Network Security | IP Security | Digital Forensics | Firewalls and VPNs | Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains | Intrusion Detection | Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA) | Security Concepts | TCP/IP Security Attacks | Operating Systems Security Attacks | Authentication | Kerberos V4 | Kerberos V5 | Public Key Infrastructure | Internet Key Exchange (IKE) | Email Security | Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) | Wireless LAN Security I: WEP Overview and Tools | Wireless LAN Security II: WEP Attacks, WPA and WPA2 | DNS Security Network Security Tools by Students: Placeholder Trojan | Password Sniffer | Android Trojan Horse | Traffic Sniffer | Steganography | E-Zee Pass: Web-based password hash | Cafe Crack: A Wireless Attack Tool | Net Vigilant: Network Monitor Tool | Secure Data Exchange Tool Student Reports: Android Security | Body Area Networks Security | Cryptocurrencies | Cloud Security | Nation-State Cyber Espionage | i OS Security | Point-of-Sale (POS) Malware | Security of Smart Grid | Security in VANETs | Security of Autonomous Vehicles | Cloud Security | Virtual Machine Security | Social Networks Security | Cyber Warfare | Cybercrime | Cyber-Terrorism | Mobile Security | Industrial Control Systems Security | Video Security | Digital Rights Management | Biometrics Security Systems | Digital Watermarking | Anonymity | Wi MAX security 1 | Wi MAX Security 2 | Social Network Security | Kerberos V | Sensors and Actuators Security | Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Security | Worms | Security of Virtual Machines | Cloud Computing Security | Hacking Organizations, Conferences, and Publications | Secure Ballots Using Quantum Cryptography | Quantum Key Distribution Protocols | Web Single Sign-On Systems | Wireless Hacking Tools | Peer-to-Peer Network Security | Intrusion Detection Techniques | GSS-API CSE473: Introduction to Computer Networks (2016) (2011, 2010, 2009, and 2005 are also available) Course Overview | Internet: Core and Edge, History | Application Layer | Transport Layer | The Network Layer: Data Plane | The Network Layer: Control Plane | The Link Layer and LANs | Wireless and Mobile Networks | Security in Computer Networks: Cryptography | Multimedia Networking | Network Management | Data Communications and Networking Overview | Data Transmission | Transmission Media | Signal Encoding Techniques | Digital Communications Techniques | Data Link Control Protocols | High-Speed LANs | High-Speed LANs Part II: 1G and 10G Ethernets and Token Ring | High-Speed LANs Part III: LLC and Bridges | Wireless LANs | Cellular Wireless Networks | Internet Protocol | Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) | Routing in Switched Networks | Transport Protocols | Network Security Part I: Concepts | Network Security Part II: Standards | Network Management (SNMP) | Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) | ATM Networks: An overview Tutorials: Networking Technologies for Big Data and Internet of Things | Network Virtualization and Software Defined Networking for Cloud Computing | Protocols for Data Center Network Virtualization and Cloud Computing | Open Flow, Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) | Architectures for the Next Generation Internet and the Future Networks | Computer Systems Performance Analysis: Design of Experiments | Next Generation Wireless Technologies: High Throughput Wi Fi, Wi MAX, and UWB | Broadband Metro and Access Networks | Optical Networking: Recent Developments, Issues, and Trends | Hot Topics in Networking: MPLS, Qo S, 10 Gb E, Vo IP, SANs, Wireless, and Optical Networks | Hot Topics in Networking Tutorials on ATM Networks: Overview | Adaptations Layers | Traffic Management | Issues and Challenges Ahead | Physical Layers (Phy) | Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA) | Signaling (UNI) | Private Network to Node Interface (PNNI) | Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface (B-ICI) | Residential Broadband (RBB) | Voice and Telephony over ATM (VTOA) | Wireless ATM (WATM) | Audiovisual Multimedia Services (AMS) | Name Service (ANS) | Application Programming Interface (API) Tutorials on Internet Protocols: ( Video Recordings are also available.) Fundamentals (OSI Reference Model, Coding, Ethernet) | Data Link Control (Flow Control, Error Control, HDLC, PPP) | Internet Protocol (IP, IP Addressing) | Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) | IP Next Generation (IPv6) | Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) | Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) | The Domain Name System (DNS) | Network Management (SNMP) | Network Security (Firewalls) | Routing Algorithms (Dijkstra and Bellman-Ford) | Route Discovery Protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP) | Mobile IP | Multipoint Communication Over IP (IP Multicasting) | ATM Networks | LAN Emulation, IP Switching and Label Switching | Protocols for Multimedia on the Internet (Integrated Services, RSVP, Differentiated Services) | Voice over IP | IP over SONET Courses Taught at Ohio State University: CIS 677: Introduction to Computer Networking ( 2000, 1998, 1997, 1996 ) | CIS 678: Internetworking ( 1997) | CIS 777: Telecommunication Networks ( 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997) | CIS 788.08Q: Recent Advances in Networking ( 1999, 1997) | CIS 752: Simulation Modeling and Analysis ( 1997) | Recent/Upcoming Conference/Seminar Appearances Keynote Speaker at ICNC 2019 | SSIC 2019| ISC2 2018 | Netsoft 2018 | HPSR 2018 | AEECT 2017 | SIGCOMM 2017 | CITS 2017 | CCISP 2016 | CIC 2016 | Midwest Drone Introduction 2016 | IEMCON 2016 | ADCOM 2016 | CAST 2016 | SSC 2016 | CANSec 2016 | Io T World Forum, Research and Innovation Symposium 2015 | ADCOM 2015 | ADCOM 2014 | Wo WMo M 2014 | ADCOM 2013 | Mobile Cloud Computing & Services 2012 | ICC 2012 | IEEE ANTS 2010 | MICS 2010 | NBi S 2009 | NAS 2009 | ICON 2008 | ACM Multimedia 2008 | ICCBN 2008 | ICCCE 2008 | ...
| Distinguished Lecture, ICNC 2012, | Co-Chair, Broadband Access Comm. III 2009 | Inaugural Speaker, COMSNETS 2011, | Tutorial Speaker: GITMA 2015 | MEDES'14 | SIGCOMM 2014 | HPSR 2014 | HPSR 2014 | SECON 2014 | ICC 2014 | ADCOM 2013 | ADCOM 2012 | ANTS 2011 | ICC 2011 | BSCNDS 2011 | MILCOM 2010 | Globecom 2009 | Hot Interconnect 2010 | ...| CDAC-ACCS Foundation Lecture, ADCOM 2009 | Co-Chair, Broadband Access Communication Technologies Conference III 2009 | Co-Chair, Broadband Access Communication Technologies III 2009 | Co-Chair, Broadband Access Communication Technologies Conference II 2008 | Tutorial Presenter, Photonics West 2008 | Invited Speaker, ANTS 2008 | General Chair, ICCBN 2008 ...Recent Participation in Conference Program/Advisory Committees RAIT-2018 | DISN 2017 | ICIW 2017 | ICBDACI 2017 | IC3TSN 2017 | ICCAN 2017 | Ub SA 2016 | ICACIE 2016 | IC3I 2017 | CCISP and ICVAT 2016 | ANTS 2016 | ICISCT 2016 | EMERGING 2016 | ACM SIGCOMM 2016 | Emerging 2016 | ICSNC 2016 | i CATcc T 2016 | ICIW 2016 | HWISE 2016 | ICC 2016 | RAIT 2016 | CTRQ 2016 | ICN 2016 | ICCI 2015 | ICCIDM 2015 | ICSNC 2015 | ICGCIo T 2015 | ICSNCS 2015 | i CATcc T 2015 | WOCN 2015 | EMERGING 2015 | ICACNI 2015 | ICIW 2015 | CTRQ 2015 | ICN 2015 | HWISE 2015 | ICONNECT 2015 | RDCAPE 2015 ...But just as high-speed and low-cost numerical representations and digital computations replaced analog computing, it likewise became much more reliable and less expensive to transmit digital coded numerical samples of a signal to be reconstituted at the receiver rather than to faithfully transmit a continuously varying analog representation.In digital communications, information is encoded into groups of ones and zeroes that represent time-sampled numerical values of the original (voice, music, video, and so on) signal.As a result, the wireless transceiver portion (as opposed to the application software that communicates using that transceiver) of low-cost consumer devices is unlikely to become highly programmable, at least in the near future.On the other Programmability of radio functionality is distinct from the increasing degree of application programmability being introduced into mobile phones and exemplified by smart phones for which a large number of user-selected applications are available.Ironically, in the wireless domain, once the analog signal has been encoded into a sequence of digital values, smoothly varying forms for the ones and the zeroes must be generated so that the transmitted signal will propagate.Figure 2.1.1 shows a digital sequence of ones and zeros.For the continuous sinusoidal signals that can be propagated from transmitter to receiver to be encoded, modulated, demodulated, and decoded using digital technology, they must be put into a digital form by using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and then a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to return to analog form.For example, an ADC might take 500 million samples per second, with a resolution of 10 bits (1 part in 1024 accuracy).