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Campbell recommends playing specially selected classical music to infants, in the expectation that it will benefit their mental development.
Another study in 1994 used parts of the Stanford-Binet spatial test but also failed to corroborate her findings.
Some researchers suggest that music’s temporary enhancement of arousal could explain the positive results of the original studies.
The study makes no statement of an increase in IQ in general (because IQ was never measured). only showed an increase in "spatial intelligence", the results were popularly interpreted as an increase in general IQ.
This misconception, and the fact that the music used in the study was by Mozart, had an obvious appeal to those who valued this music; the Mozart effect was thus widely reported.
448 by Mozart, verbal relaxation instructions, and silence.
Mozart Effect Research Paper
They found a temporary enhancement of spatial-reasoning, as measured by spatial-reasoning sub tasks of the Stanford-Binet IQ test. show that the enhancing effect of the music condition is only temporary: no student had effects extending beyond the 15-minute period in which they were tested.In one study, researchers observed that the Mozart effect received more newspaper coverage in American states with weaker educational systems.Professor Chip Heath of Stanford University, one of the leading researchers, proposes that people always grapple for solutions to complex problems, even if those solutions are “highly distorted, bogus things like the Mozart effect.” Along these lines, Yale Professor Edward Zigler and Harvard Assistant Professor Stephanie M.Nevertheless, Rauscher’s 1993 experiment struck a chord in the public sphere.Media outlets quickly began to suggest a connection between listening to classical music and intelligence, an overgeneralization that Rauscher has deemed “scientific legend.” Capitalists then began turning myth into money, generating a “Mozart effect industry,” as exemplified by the company Baby Einstein’s 1998 video “Baby Mozart,” which was recognized as “Video of the Year” by Parenting Magazine and “Top Selling Video of the Year” by Specialty Realtor Magazine.Despite the popularity of the Mozart effect, experiments on the relationship between music and spatial reasoning have produced inconsistent results, and there has been no direct evidence for enhancement of overall intelligence.That is not to say, however, that all investigation of music and cognition should be dismissed.However, Rauscher’s results have faced much contradictory research.Three studies conducted by other researchers in 1994, 1995, and 1997 attempted to replicate her findings using other spatial tests, but none showed significant score enhancement.Results showed that students scored the highest after listening to Mozart’s music: On Stanford-Binet spatial IQ tests involving the visualization of folded paper shapes, scores rose 8-9 points, though only for a period of 10-15 minutes.A leading researcher of the study, Frances Rauscher, continued for two more years to conduct similar studies with comparable results.