This guide contains both UCI Libraries' restricted resources* as well as publicly accessible ones.
Title Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Bibliography of guides Peer review Presentations Lab reports (2nd ed.) Bjorn Gustavii.
Errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation must be strictly avoided, as must ambiguous, inaccurate and imprecise information that might confuse readers.
The past tense should be used to report what was done, and the active voice can be particularly concise when describing materials and methods, but do check the instructions – some scientific disciplines, journals and instructors still prefer or require the passive voice.
The methods section of research is argued to be the most important aspect of any report.
Fortunately, it is also the most straightforward section to write.
Generally speaking, the methods section of an academic or scientific research paper follows the introduction and background sections and precedes the results and discussion sections.
The writing style used in the methods section of a research paper should be clear and direct.
Standard instruments and measures in the field, for instance, may only need to be identified rather than described, but how you used them should be noted, and any modifications to well-known equipment or innovations on established procedures should be described in detail.
The right balance for a wide audience can be elusive, which is why some scientific journals now ask authors to include only basic information on methodology in the paper itself and to present detailed methods for the use of peer reviewers and researchers as supplementary materials.