Metaphysics Essay Questions

At its most basic level, metaphysics is concerned with attempting to answer two questions: what is ultimately there? The word metaphysics is derived from two Greek words (“beyond” and “physics”), and was first used as the title of one of Aristotle’s works, however the word was ultimately a mistranslation of what Aristotle meant.

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However, even in the 20th century, thinkers wrestled with the notion of being.

Martin Heidegger, in Being and Time, attempted to refocus modern philosophy back to Being, rather than beings. Rene Descartes, famous for the phrase cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I exist) created the notion of dualism, believing that the mind and the body were two separate substances.

What is the metaphysical background to early Confucian ethics?

Is there a distinctive picture of reality common to all classical Chinese thinkers that we must grasp in order to make sense of texts like the Analects, Mencius, and Xunzi? more What is the metaphysical background to early Confucian ethics?

Idealists, such as Berkeley or Kant, reject this and claim that things only exist when they are perceived by the mind.

The context in which the famous statement appears is important to see its relevance to the concept of self and the subject of mind entailed in it.Is there a distinctive picture of reality common to all classical Chinese thinkers that we must grasp in order to make sense of texts like the Analects, Mencius, and Xunzi?Contemporary interpreters disagree on the answer to these questions, and this disagreement is reflected not just in scholarly debates but in how early Confucian texts are introduced to larger audiences.If one accepts that it must be a mind that does the thinking, one sees that by his famous statement, Descartes irrevocably puts mind, as well as the subjects of self and existence, into consideration for philosophy.In the following passage, Descartes implies that the mind has a separate existence from matter, and that this existence is more relevant to individuals than the existence of matter, which he discusses later.more The question which is the subject of this book was posed to me at the age of 12 by my Guru, after my body had undergone a sea change following recovery from an illness.At that time, I argued that the Universe is Full and self-limiting.When human beings speak, they interact with other human beings, expressing their own intentions and plans,...more Things have names because people refer to them using words to name them.Die Augenblickswelt zerfällt im nächsten Augenblick, nur um abermals existent zu werden. 1: Schnee im Frühling, Hanser Verlag: München 1985, Bd. Innerhalb einer solchen Lage aber ist der Schmerz der einzige Maßstab, der sichere Aufschlüsse verspricht. There has been a growing charge that perdurantism-with its bloated ontology of very person-like objects that coincide persons-implies the repugnant conclusion that we are morally obliged to be feckless. more There has been a growing charge that perdurantism-with its bloated ontology of very person-like objects that coincide persons-implies the repugnant conclusion that we are morally obliged to be feckless.Die jetzt sichtbare Welt ist in jedem nächsten Augenblick eine andere. Yukio Mishima, Das Meer der Fruchtbarkeit (4 Bd.), Bd. Wo kein Wert standhält, bleibt die auf den Schmerz gerichtete Bewegung als ein erstaunliches Zeichen bestehen; in ihr verrät sich der negative Abdruck einer metaphysischen Struktur. I argue that this charge critically overlooks the epistemic situation-what I call the 'veil of ignorance'-that perdurantists find themselves in.

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