The images date from the spacecraft's first probe of 1999–2001 (Teles et al.)Other discoveries made by the MGS included numerous steep-slope gullies and inner channels in places like the Nanedi Valles and Nirgal Vallis, all of which have likely contained liquid water at some point in time.
The short-lived Pathfinder probe of 1997 found that daily temperatures on Mars, though varied, never reached as high as 0 °C, which is the minimum point of freezing.
The spacecraft also captured imagery that indicated the presence of clouds and perhaps fog in the Martian atmosphere.
In 2003, the Mars Odyssey uncovered the most sizable evidence yet that water exists on the red planet.
kilometers of Mars—suggests that Mars has been an exceedingly dry planet for millions of years.
Shortly after NASA lost contact with the MGS, photographic evidence was released of two craters—Terra Sirenum and Centauri Montes—that look as though they carried water.
Theories regarding the presence of water on Mars had long been a topic of discussion before the first attempts at reaching the red planet were undertaken via spacecraft in 1960, starting with the Soviet government's launch of the failed Marsnik.
A decade of similarly ill-fated launch attempts would follow before NASA successfully landed the Marin 9 on Mars in 1971, and the first ever surface images of Earth's neighbor were seen by human eyes.
Since the first Martian probe in the early 1970s, NASA has found evidence that water could possibly exist on Mars.
These latest findings, however, are distinguished by the discovery of hydrated salts, which are formed by a combination of sodium chloride compounds and water molecules.