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In the Met Life study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks.Kohn (2006) argued that homework can create family conflict and reduce students' quality of life.Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved.
With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.
In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.
Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than two hours in high school score worse.
Proponents claim that assigning homework to young children helps them learn good study habits.
Her work has appeared in many publications including Education Week, and her blog, Practical Leadership, was featured on the Scholastic website.
She has been a presenter and consultant, and with Magna Publications she developed videos on demand highlighting successful strategies for classroom teachers.Essentially, they advocate for doing potentially unnecessary homework from approximately age five to ten as a way of practicing for doing necessary homework from age 10 to 15.No research has ever been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit.Stress was especially evident among high school students.Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep.The authors of Sallee & Rigler (2008), both high school English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students' extracurricular activities and responsibilities. (2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and responsibilities.Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) recommended further empirical study relating to this aspect due to the difference between student and parent observations.Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework.A 2007 study of American students by Met Life found that 89% of students felt stressed from homework, with 34% reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework.Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students.Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.