Anselm, who formulated the first ontological argument; Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Thomas Aquinas, who presented their own versions of the cosmological argument (the kalam argument and the first way, respectively); René Descartes, who said that the existence of a benevolent God is logically necessary for the evidence of the senses to be meaningful.
John Calvin argued for a sensus divinitatis, which gives each human a knowledge of God's existence.
Krauss, Richard Dawkins, Carl Sagan, Neil de Grasse Tyson, John Lennox and Sam Harris, as well as philosophers including Richard Swinburne, Alvin Plantinga, William Lane Craig, Rebecca Goldstein, A. Grayling, Daniel Dennett, Edward Feser and David Bentley Hart.
Scientists follow the scientific method, within which theories must be verifiable by physical experiment.
Apatheism concerns belief about the practical importance of whether God exists.
For the purposes of discussion, Richard Dawkins described seven "milestones" on his spectrum of theistic probability: The Catholic Church, following the teachings of Paul the Apostle, Thomas Aquinas, and the First Vatican Council, affirms that God's existence "can be known with certainty from the created world by the natural light of human reason".The Western tradition of philosophical discussion of the existence of God began with Plato and Aristotle, who made arguments that would now be categorized as cosmological.Other arguments for the existence of God have been proposed by St.Theism and atheism are positions of belief (or lack of it), while gnosticism and agnosticism are positions of knowledge (or the lack of it).Ignosticism concerns belief about God's conceptual coherence.The Sun and the Moon are not just random objects floating in the Milky Way, rather they serve us day and night, and the way nature works and how life is formed, humankind benefits from it.Rushd essentially comes to a conclusion that there has to be a higher being who has made everything perfectly to serve the needs of human beings.A wide variety of arguments for and against the existence of God can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective.In philosophical terms, the question of the existence of God involves the disciplines of epistemology (the nature and scope of knowledge) and ontology (study of the nature of being, existence, or reality) and the theory of value (since some definitions of God include "perfection").They believe it would contradict the transcendent nature of God for mere humans to define him.Robert Barron explains by analogy that it seems impossible for a two-dimensional object to conceive of three-dimensional humans.