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The majority of tourists fall into the mass tourism category, the one most often seen as the cause of tourism-related problems.For tourism to contribute to sustainable human development, all tourists need to consider ways of reducing the negative impacts of their holidays.
Tourism’s contribution to employment tends to be slightly higher and is estimated in the order of 6-7% of the overall number of jobs (direct and indirect).
For advanced, diversified economies, the contribution of tourism to the GDP ranges from approximately 2% for countries where tourism is a comparatively small sector, to over 10% for countries where tourism is an important pillar of the economy.
These include various forms of alternative or sustainable tourism such as: ‘nature-based tourism’, ‘ecotourism’ and ‘cultural tourism’.
Sustainable tourism is becoming so popular that some say that what we presently call ‘alternative’ will be the ‘mainstream’ in a decade.
Q1: Name (i) one place in your country, and (ii) one in another country which each of these four categories of tourists might visit.
Q2: Which category has the least harmful impact on the cultures and environments they visit? Q3: Which category would you like to visit your community for a holiday? You probably chose the ‘alternative tourist’ as the one likely to cause least problems.It seeks to provide people with an exciting and educational holiday that is also of benefit to the people of the host country.This module explores the characteristics and objectives of sustainable tourism through a series of case studies.By 1990, this figure had risen to 425 million, 17 times the earlier figure.By 2000, it had risen by more than half again to 682 million and in 2008 it was 982 million – the number of international tourists has more than doubled in less than 20 years.As we have greater numbers of tourists, we may be repelling the very tourists that would be our ideal: the long-staying, high-spending, committed to quality visitors.Identify the characteristics of these four categories of tourists.Through tourism, WTO aims to stimulate economic growth and job creation; provide incentives for protecting the environment and heritage destinations, and promote peace and understanding among all nations of the world …Tourism is a labour intensive sector that can alleviate poverty through its capacity to create jobs, especially in rural areas and among women and indigenous people.The tremendous growth which we expect in the next decades cannot happen without consequences.All tourism activities of whatever motivation – holidays, business travel, conferences, adventure travel and ecotourism – need to be sustainable.Sustainable tourism is defined as “tourism that respects both local people and the traveller, cultural heritage and the environment”.