*This law is an extension of Galileo's insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force (see a more detailed description of this below).*Newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate inertia that functions as the fundamental equilibrium "natural state" in place of the Aristotelian idea of the "natural state of rest".Sir Isaac Newton described the motion of all objects using the concepts of inertia and force, and in doing so he found they obey certain conservation laws.

*This law is an extension of Galileo's insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force (see a more detailed description of this below).Newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate inertia that functions as the fundamental equilibrium "natural state" in place of the Aristotelian idea of the "natural state of rest".*

With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms.

The Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed.

This theory, based on the everyday experience of how objects move, such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving, had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles, such as the flight of arrows.

The place where the archer moves the projectile was at the start of the flight, and while the projectile sailed through the air, no discernible efficient cause acts on it.

The mechanical advantage given by a simple machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work.

Analysis of the characteristics of forces ultimately culminated in the work of Archimedes who was especially famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids.In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate.A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion, even at a constant velocity.Most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were eventually corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton.If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.Concepts related to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag, which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque, which produces changes in rotational speed of an object.Aristotle believed that motionless objects on Earth, those composed mostly of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground and that they will stay that way if left alone.He distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their "natural place" (e.g., for heavy bodies to fall), which led to "natural motion", and unnatural or forced motion, which required continued application of a force.Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational.Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines.

## Comments Force Manifold Essay

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