Euthanasia Research Paper Outline

Euthanasia Research Paper Outline-46
One of the difficulties in life is in the form of disease. Chapter 4 -- Decisions at Life's End: Existing Law. While medical technology has been creating new conditions by which individuals can live longer, and medical science has entered a new era regarding treatment of conditions which only a few years ago would haven the lives of those thus afflicted, there is one area over which medical science, and public policy, should not be allowed to reign. These opinions generally fall into two distinct categories: those who think everyone should have the right to choose, and those who think the practice should be completely illegal. Background: The practice of medicine means that physicians involved in this work are treading a narrow path…… Is it morally right to commit such action towards your loved one? Active euthanasia means to take measures to end a person's life (Euthanasia.com/definitions). Any legal request for euthanasia would have to be processed for validity by qualified doctors. he purpose of this article as it relates to the topic of euthanasia is that one popular argument for the legalization of euthanasia is that it is inhumane to let a patient suffer. "Character of erminal Illness in the Advanced Cancer Patient: Pain and Other Symptoms During the Last Four Weeks of Life." Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. his article relates to the topic of euthanasia in that it…… Personality and Science: an interdisciplinary discussion. Morality should actually be combined with logics in understanding euthanasia and people need to be more sympathetic and less egocentric regarding individuals who prefer euthanasia as the "safe way out." ibliography: Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006) Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) Neuhaus, Richard John "The…… Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. ": Dutch Culture and the Groningen Protocol." Hastings Center Report 38.4 (2008): 4-7. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. "Part of my point is that the process of the 'allowed to die' can…… "Active and passive Euthanasia." PLEASE ADD BOOK HERE. action=open Page Viewer&doc Id=85664345"Fletcher, Joseph. Sometimes diseases become so painful that the patients lose hope for their recovery and plan death. The subject of euthanasia contains within it a moral boundary over which we dare not cross. Those in favor of the procedure claim that individuals should have a right over the destiny of their own life's course. There are several reasons why people have these deep-seated views regarding the issue, and it is important to address those in order to facilitate a better understanding of ideas and opinions on both sides. [Read More] Works Cited: De Boer, Marike E., Rose-Marie Dro Es, Cees Jonker, Jan A. Do you really think that you are helping that sick person by ending his life? hen the topic of euthanasia is discussed, active euthanasia is typically to what is being referred. Any signs of depression would be properly treated and a reasonable "cooling-off period" be provided to the patients to change their minds. his study attempts to validate this argument by showing what exactly the patient is suffering from. [Read More] This is a collection of twenty-one essays presenting both sides of the euthanasia debate. [Read More] Bibliography: Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006) Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) Neuhaus, Richard John "The Always Lively Newsletter Catholic Eye Reflects on Why it Is That Older People Who Are Strongly Pro-Life Are Tempted to Succumb to a Measure of Ambivalence When the Subject Turns to Euthanasia," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2007: 65 Euthanasia (against) In North America most people die that can be called a bad death. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients. A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. This intent underlies the principle of "double effect,"…… The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. [Read More] This literature review supports the premise that opinions regarding euthanasia differ among various groups of professional. An agreement on the fact that human pain and suffering should be alleviated, and that human dignity is important, does not, however, automatically make euthanasia morally permissible or socially desirable. When involuntary euthanasia is the question, the same arguments could hold. The situation is often so extreme that care providers see and do things that in life would have seemed improbable if not impossible and the dying patient can be left feeling debased and completely helpless to do anything about it. Kevorkian restricted his efforts in that regard to patients who were already suffering from terminal illness; he eliminated clinical depression or other medical or psychological conditions known to cause suicidal desires; he interviewed patients extensively along with their families, he reviewed their medical histories carefully to confirm diagnoses; and he very specifically documented his patients' expressed desires in writing as well as on videotape in the presence of witnesses (Humphry, 2002). (1983) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professional. It is no surprise, therefore, that it evokes heated debate among doctors, lawyers, philosophers, academicians as well as the general public all over the world. The term is not usually understood to encompass things like 'do not resuscitate" orders, where a physician is ordered not to save a person, but rather is specifically applied to situations where the person is actively killed, usually through the administration of drugs. The ethical debate over euthanasia, though, is colored by millennia of human thinking concerning the value of life and biblical proscriptions against suicide in any form. The laws in each state regarding euthanasia will be covered. Clinicians are prone to take every necessary step necessary to keep the health of a patient at stable conditions. Euthanasia may reduce the attention and commitment to developing effective palliative care.

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Their views might be very different if they had all the information they needed to make a truly informed decision. [Read More] References Arguments Against Euthanasia..2004. [Read More] I believe that the most important factor which supports the argument according to which euthanasia should be your legal right is represented by the individual's right and freedom to choose. This is a sweeping argument that is again not supported by solid facts. They believe that terminating life by choice is the best possible resolution. Oregon is the only state that has legalized physician-assisted suicide, as residents voted for it at the Oregon Ballot Measure 16 in 1994, and voted against repealing it at the Oregon Ballot Measure 51 in 1997, however the state law has been attacked by a variety of organizations, as well as the United States government (Euthanasia pp). It is the taking of one's own life when a medical condition or illness becomes unbearable in terms of physical or emotional manifestations. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: Griffiths, J., Bood, A., & Weyers, H. Thus, the word euthanasia generally means that the person who wishes to commit suicide must commence the action. Humphrey also lays strong claims for the medical responsibilities of euthanasia because of the overemphasis on life-support to prolong human suffering rather than allow certain and peaceful death. article ID=000B5030-819D-1C61-B882809EC588ED9F&cat ID=1. Ethics Detriments of Euthanasia In recent years there have been increased calls for the acceptance of euthanasia. Religion and Trends in Euthanasia Attitudes among U. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) asserts "Most would choose to live if they had full confidence that the care system would serve them well," and so justifies continued prohibition of voluntary assisted suicide and monetary compensation for the practice thereof, using most of the criteria discussed in my research. The Columbian courts qualified their acceptance of personal autonomy as sovereign under the constitution with the competency requirement but also where the exercise of that autonomy carried only " private nonpublic effects" (Michlowski, 2009, p. The petitioner who brought the Columbian complaint claimed in part that non-voluntary euthanasia ("mercy-killing" to the 1973 AMA) left the doctor free to "end the lives of those who are regarded as an obstacle, a nuisance, or whose health raises high costs" (Michlowski, 2009, p. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The final two arguments aim at establishing whether suicide can even be considered as the rational solution. The most important value that man needs to respect is life. A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America.

One is that it contradicts the medical code of ethics and the Hippocratic Oath, which, "…expressly forbids the giving of deadly medicine to anyone who asks" (Cauthen).

The literature review supports the importance of this study and indicates that differences exist among various specialties and facilities. Critical Care Nurse Intern program: addressing psychological reactions related to critical care nursing. Despite considerable debate and weighty arguments by either side, several key euthanasia questions remain unresolved such as "Should physicians be allowed to assist in patient suicide? While the rights of the individual must be respected, even if they wish to die, others cannot, must not, accede to the individuals' wishes if they do not agree with it. Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. The reason for such ferocity in the debate has been the resultant of the lack of understanding of the real meaning of the world, since mostly its real meaning has been distorted to find definitions that would suit each camp. Active euthanasia, as defined by the British Broadcast Corporation (BBC) is…… Also, he satisfactorily disposes of common objections to legalization by showing them to be either manageable or premature. Positive euthanasia, on the other hand, has come to refer to actions that actively cause death such as administering a lethal drug. Taking of the person's life is usually at the express instructions of the person.

This study will play an important role in understanding how differences in attitudes towards euthanasia are affected by years of experience and clinical setting. The underlying basis of euthanasia must be the ending of a life who's continuance is generally accepted as an "evil." Many times the individual seeking to be euthanized, because they are at the center of the issue, cannot make an objective decision about their future. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). all those medicines, treatments, and operations which cannot be obtained without excessive expense, pain, or other inconveniences, or which, if used, would not coffer a reasonable hope of benefit" (Sullivan, 1977, p. The implied intention is therefore to do as much as possible ensure the continuation of life without promoting suffering in the face of a hopeless situation. Therefore the most primary step in this regard than becomes to take into consideration the definition of the word itself. Explanation of Singer's Position Singer concludes that, from a utilitarian perspective, the legalization of voluntary euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide would be a desirable reform. Much debate has arisen in the United States among physicians, religious leaders, lawyers, and the general public over euthanasia (Euthanasia, Infoplease.com). "The Constitutional Case Against Permitting Physician-Assisted Suicide for Competent Adults with "Terminal Conditions." Oregon Right to Life. There are two different kinds of euthanasia involuntary and voluntary euthanasia.

There are uncountable joys in life which make life worth enjoying, while there are many hardships which make it tough. However, in some scenarios, people could ask that their life be ended for a variety of other reasons including but not limited to pain and mental…… This issue has attracted various reasons in support and opposition of both the voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. "Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How Do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? "Other People's Lives: Reflections on Medicine, Ethics, and Euthanasia." Issues in Law & Medicine 27.1 (2011): 51-70. When a truer form of compassion is found in palliative care, the ground shifts to an appeal to human rights, especially to the sovereignty of self- determination." (Gormally, 1997). Euthanasia is categorized as active and passive (Euthanasia.com/definitions). April 15, 2005 euthanasia-voluntary/ When a doctor provides such information to a terminally ill patient it is called "physician-assisted suicide." Both "assisted suicide" and "physician-assisted suicide" are covered under the broad definition of euthanasia. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions. His arguments for euthanasia are effective and compelling, and though directed at physicians, they are of interest to anyone thinking about euthanasia for themselves or a loved one.

At times, the difficulties become so severe that people prefer death to life. [Read More] Euthanasia The power to control the destiny of another person's life is an opiate which no person should have the ability to ingest when the control is over the persons life, or death. Rippe, "Silencing the Singer: Antibioethics in Germany," Hastings Center Report, 21, no. Euthanasia is a difficult topic for many people, and opinions about it are often very strong. Despite these reasons and opinions, a middle ground position is the logical solution regarding euthanasia. Experiences of Physicians and Relatives." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 989-96. The questions that are attached to this process lies in the moral and humane aspect. Passive euthanasia means failure to provide life prolonging medical treatment and letting a disease state take its natural course without intervention. Again, my rebuttal to this argument is that proponents of euthanasia are not trigger-happy killers. "Voluntary Euthanasia." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. he findings reveal that the pain is unbearable yet the patients tend to become immune from it, or at least surrender to it. his study focuses on assessing and evaluating the levels of pain that a terminally ill, advanced cancer patient suffers from, particularly during the last four weeks of their life. Taking one's life as a result of the fact that the respective person is expected to suffer inhumane pain for several years until his or her death cannot possibly be compared with murder or suicide. So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. achels discusses the differences between "killing and letting die" (achels 561), and discusses specific cases where allowing the patient to simply die without further treatment could actually prolong their life and their suffering. The study indicates that there is a need for training in a number of clinical settings regarding care of the dying and futile treatments. oodman 110) Opponents of the right to die demonstrate an unwavering expression of the need for individuals to have as much time as they can with…… "Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 88.3 (1998): 1121-1146. Endings and Beginnings: Law, Medicine, and Society in Assisted Life and Death. Even the ancient Greeks had pondered over the issue centuries ago, albeit without reaching a definite conclusion about its merits or otherwise. "The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide -- The Ultimate Right," Article reproduced in "Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Bioethical Issues," pp. 88-95 Hendin, Herbert "Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Netherlands: Lessons from the Dutch," 277 Journal of the American Medical Association, (June 4, 1997), p. Killing and Letting Die (Publishing details not provided) EUTHANASIA The word Euthanasia has been the cause of much debate about its legality and whether such a practice is even ethical or not. There are laws in most countries, though, that prevent people from…… While euthanasia may be controversial to some, there are some situations where people are going to do what they are going to do and allowing them the easier and more dignified path is the way to go. In such situations, health professionals are stuck between assisting the patient to die, notably by using an external means, or letting him or her to fight for life until death, something that might be painful, both to the clinicians, the patients, and even the loved ones. [Read More] against Voluntary Euthanasia on Life Support In his essay, Voluntary Euthanasia: A Utilitarian Perspective, Peter Singer reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. Singer, 541 534, 537 Euthanasia Should e Illegal Euthanasia is the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing death, as by withholding extreme medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, often painful, disease or condition (Euthanasia, Infoplease.com). People hold differing beliefs and opinions in regards to euthanasia. Literature indicated that differences exist between nurses that are new to palliative care and those that have been in the job for quite some time. In more recent times, euthanasia has been the subject of discussion in various forums including the Supreme Court of the United States with similar inconclusive results. 1720-1722 This can ultimately become the justification for refusal to euthanize a person even if they have given their permission. The anti-argument for this cause has mostly been raised from more controversial background, while the pro argument has come up from the liberal camp. Analysis When it comes to the definition of active or passive euthanasia, the difference is pretty clear. Thesis: Singer establishes a solid grounding for the ethicality of legalizing voluntary euthanasia by arguing that the human right to pursue their notion of the good should be respected. Today, medical advances have made it possible to prolong life in patients with no hope of recovery, and the term negative euthanasia has arisen to classify the practice of withholding or withdrawing extraordinary means (e.g., intravenous feeding, respirators, and artificial kidney machines) to preserve life. The term euthanasia basically means the practice of willingly terminating a person's life in order to relieve the person of any suffering or pain. Critical Care Nurses: Practices, Attitudes, and Social and Professional Correlates. The ultimate goal of the study will be to find ways to improve the experiences of dying patients and their families. And since they need the assistance of others to complete the act of euthanasia, it is up to the others to refuse to euthanize a person they feel is not continuing a life that can be considered "evil." This leads to the question of when does the continuance of a life constitute an "evil," and…… " Euthanasia Science and technology has allowed humans to treat a myriad of diseases that were previously terminal. The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. This refers the fact that the AMA "…allows the withdrawal of what it calls extraordinary means of preserving life" (Sullivan, 1977, p. Ordinary means refers to " & #8230; All medicines, treatments and operations which would offer a reasonable hope of benefit for the patient ands which can be obtained and used without excessive expense, pain and other inconveniences" (Sullivan, 1977, p. If we take this point into account then the intention of the AMA document becomes clear and the views that achels suggest…… The dictionary defines the term Euthanasia as "the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in relatively painless way for reasons of mercy" (Euthanasia). [Read More] Booker Prize-winning novel Amsterdam by Ian Mcewan is not really about euthanasia per se; it is about the twisted relationships between the two main characters, Clive Linley, composer, and Vernon Halliday, newspaper editor. Christianity and Buddhism share many similarities when it comes to suffering. He reasons that the objections against Euthanasia based on the availability of alternative treatments can be resolved through procedures to certify that such treatments are insufficient. Pro-euthanasia societies were founded in 1935 in England and 1938 in the United States. According to Jochemsen and Keown (1999) voluntary euthanasia involves the patient having requested that their life be taken in case they suffer from an incurable disease which is causing them too much suffering and pain. [Read More] Euthanasia: The Right to Die, the Right to Life -- a Continuing Controversy The idea of willing terminating an individual's life, even according to his or her consent, remains one of the most controversial "rights" in today's contemporary debate over where the state's ability to intrude upon the individual body begins. This is no longer a question of whether prolonging life is possible. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. [Read More] References Decisions Near the End of Life: CEJA Report (1992) Jama, 267( 16), pp. Deeply affected by the death of their mutual friend and lover Molly Lane, Clive and Vernon agree that if they should ever exhibit the symptoms of some deadly illness, that they agree to assist the other in euthanasia. Christianity provides the story of Job and his suffering at the hands of Satan. He then addresses the only viable objection, that legalizing voluntary euthanasia will lead to a slippery slope of increased non-voluntary euthanasia decisions. The Hemlock Society is one group that has pressed for right-to-die…… Involuntary euthanasia occurs when a doctor or physician makes the decision to terminate a patient's life because the patient cannot recover and keeping them on life support will not have any positive effect. There are many other related reasons for arguing against euthanasia and its acceptance or legalization.And by this I mean that all people ought to be allowed the right to this sort of decision and not only the ones who are terminally ill. There are many terminal conditions such as full-blown aids and several forms of cancer in which no amounts of…… On the other hand, many individuals believe that Euthanasia is a criminal act and that the behaviors surrounding the event are unethical. In 2003, some forty-two cases of physician-assisted suicide were reported in Oregon, which involved twelve cases where the physician was actually present, and all by drinking a barbiturate potion (Euthanasia pp). Euthanasia In addition to racism, political and philosophical ideologies, and abortion, euthanasia is one of the foremost issues that divide people in the United States and the rest of the world. Euthanasia is also called Physician's Assisted Suicide. However, according to some people definition, euthanasia comprises both voluntary as well as involuntary execution of life. Humphrey's believes that the medical community needs be an example to individuals by stopping making decisions for the family based on technological progress of aggressive treatments. Euthanasia (active and Passive) A Moral Philosophy Paper Euthanasia is the practice of ending a person's life for the sole purpose of relieving the person's body from excruciating pain and suffering due to an incurable disease. euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide on Religious Tolerance.org, most people in North America die "a bad death," one characterized by pain, being unable to participate in their medical treatment program, or after spending over ten days in intensive care. "In Cases of Euthanasia, Men Most Often Kill Women." Scientific American. The practice has been legalized in some European states, such as Switzerland, Holland and Belgium as well as some U. states, including Oregon, Montana and Washington (Steck et al., 2013). On the other hand, the American Psychological Association's assertion that the cognition behind the terminally ill patient's decision to die differs from the logic employed by the clinically depressed in deciding to commit suicide is echoed by the American Public Health Association, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and the American College of Legal Medicine, who justify their recommendation against the negative associations between suicide and what they describe as "the principles of personal autonomy and free will" on grounds of material difference long recognized by the U. 186), but the court took it upon itself to generalize this even farther. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…… The avoidance of harm refers to the commonly accepted view that hurting oneself is irrational because life is the most precious possession we own. "Euthanasia." Philosophy and Public Affairs 6.2 (1977): 85-112. Just like he will not harm another person's life, he must never harm his own. Quest’anno i più forti segugisti italiani si sono dati appuntamento a Matelica (cittadina del presidente Paolo Sparvoli) sulle colline dell’entroterra maceratese.Testo completo ALBUM FOTOGRAFICO Il 06/03/2016 la segreteria provinciale di Brindisi dell’Associazione Nazionale Libera Caccia ha organizzato presso il ristorante Hotel Tre Trulli di Ceglie Messapica (Br) la festa del cacciatore (3° edizione) Si è registrata una foltissima presenza che ha superato ogni previsione 250 partecipanti.Moreover, in legal cases that involve the hospital, the courts are forced the…… "Sex, Death and The Courts." The New York Review of Books. Terry Golway, frames the issue in its larger effects of society. Sarah Banks writes on the practical application of these ethics, with a special focus on the caring professions. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117 Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Extension of life by a matter of days, weeks, or even years does not necessarily equate with promoting the values inherent to a good quality of life. The case study of George and his diagnosis of ALS is similar to the stories of Job and Siddhartha. Euthanasia threatens the current way of life of people of are "God fearing and life-affirming" (629). For Banks, codes of ethics are not rigid rulebooks with prescriptions on the minutiae of professional practice. As the events of the novel progress, however, Vernon and Clive demonstrate that…… All three came from a means of success and then suffered later on.

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