In one of the longer chapters in the anthology Jason Mittell examines the nature of anti-heroes in contemporary American television serials and questions the reasons behind audience engagement and allegiance to such morally-ambiguous characters, tracking the complex ways in which the protagonists of (2008-2013) are constructed.Mittell has published some of the most valuable scholarly work on American television in recent years, and here too one can see the breadth of knowledge and insight he can bring to the analysis of narrative and emotional strategies employed by television producers.
In one of the longer chapters in the anthology Jason Mittell examines the nature of anti-heroes in contemporary American television serials and questions the reasons behind audience engagement and allegiance to such morally-ambiguous characters, tracking the complex ways in which the protagonists of (2008-2013) are constructed.Mittell has published some of the most valuable scholarly work on American television in recent years, and here too one can see the breadth of knowledge and insight he can bring to the analysis of narrative and emotional strategies employed by television producers.Tags: N Satellite EssayBrown University Creative Writing MfaDissertation Alphonse De LamartineResearch Paper On DatabaseRajiv Gandhi University DissertationsPhotography Institute Assignment 2Creative Writing Workshops TorontoWhat Is A Random Assignment
4) and convincingly demonstrate the persistence of medium, national, institutional, and technological specificities in the age of convergence.
Their introduction is succinct and nuanced, offering enough food for thought on convergence culture for both the expert and the uninitiated.
In a frequently cited passage, Henry Jenkins defined convergence as ‘the flow of content across multiple media platforms, cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want’. In this respect, subsequent studies focused on understanding how these shifts in media technologies and industries brought forward further changes in consumer culture and suggested the blurring of traditional boundaries between different media and nations.
(Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), a new anthology of essays edited by Roberta Pearson and Anthony N.
‘Bollywood remakes should not be seen as resulting from a simple process of “Indianisation”’ (p.
118), writes Smith, and indeed he provides evidence from the ways in which the complex narrative structure in was adapted into local storytelling customs: by normalising the film’s linear structure (which obliterates the source text’s trademark reverse-chronology), adding song numbers, and increasing emotional intensity through the exaggeration of a background love story.The syntagmatic axis refers to the causal chain of events constituted by individual episodes in serial instalments, an aspect of seriality rarely demonstrated in Nintendo games.In these games the ‘associations between the instalments of a series form not via a chronology of depicted events but by inferred thematic parallelism’, or what others have termed as the paradigmatic axis (p. For Smith, this paradigmatic seriality ‘has become a key selling point in Nintendo’s address to dedicated gamers’, while its basic narratives continue to capture broader audiences.In many ways this testifies to the applicability and usefulness of historical poetics in understanding aesthetic strategies, audience responses, and industrial trends across a range of art forms and cultural practices. Smith’s chapter examining the innovative audience-targeting strategies the Kyoto-based video gaming company Nintendo employs in order to reach two distinct segments.Smith argues that the distinctive storytelling strategies and treatment of well-known narrative formulas in serial game franchises such as produce ‘storyworlds’ that are simultaneously appealing to new gamers (as the basic narrative formula ‘offers a discrete and coherent narrative experience’) as well as ‘hardcore’ gamers familiar with the preceding episodes (for the variations’ ‘potential to surprise and delight dedicated players’) (p. Smith’s work represents a unique type of inquiry into game studies, as it goes beyond standardised accounts of narrative analysis of games based on their interactivity and provides evidence from Nintendo’s production strategies and the games’ critical reception Smith begins his analysis by distinguishing Nintendo games against differences in syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes in serial texts.However, it is not clear how this chapter relates to media convergence or the institutional specificity of the serials’ production (as one can all too easily tally countless examples of anti-heroes in the history of cinema), and it invests perhaps too much sustained attention into character evaluation.Moreover, Mittell’s claim that audiences engage with these questionable characters due to the length of serials seems tautological at best and does not clarify how audiences come to terms with the ethical conundrums involved in this engagement in the first place.Dagnino argues that ‘the association of product placement with tax credit […] increases the financial involvement of private companies in film production in a way that enhances commercial influence upon the narrative and aesthetic features of the films’ (p. Dagnino demonstrates this argument through a case study exploring , Silvio Soldini, 2012), where the famous Disaronno liqueur was not only depicted prominently (with no obvious narrative function, as the author emphasises) but also featured in a number of promotional events during the pre-production and distribution stages of the film.Commercial companies investing in screen narratives for the purpose of publicising their products is most likely not news in film history, but the combination of product placement, tax credit, and the legitimate legal background testifies to the active cooperation between media industries and other private enterprises in visibly circulating their commodities.The next chapter penned by Claudio Pires Franco examines the little known , subsequently adapted to other media forms such as a BBC animated cartoon series and a browser-based game by the British studio Dubit.Franco also transcends a standardised account of textual analysis and engages with adaptation studies in suggesting ‘transmedial ’ to be a more productive model, as opposed to fidelity (p. Franco’s analysis is not only based on the textual differences and similarities between the book, the cartoon, and the game, but also depends on extratextual data gathered from the franchise’s production team and their documents.