which critiqued the "male sex role" literature and proposed a model of multiple masculinities and power relations. Connell This concept draws its theoretical roots from the Gramscian term hegemony as it was used to understand the stabilization of class relations.
This model was integrated into a systematic sociological theory of gender. The idea was then transferred to the problem of gender relations.
The ideals of manhood espoused by the dominant masculinity suggested a number of characteristics that men are encouraged to internalize into their own personal codes and which form the basis for masculine scripts of behaviour.
These characteristics include: violence and aggression, stoicism (emotional restraint), courage, toughness, physical strength, athleticism, risk-taking, adventure and thrill-seeking, competitiveness, and achievement and success.
Yet still since men benefit from the patriarchal dividend, they generally gain from the overall subordination of women.
Essay On Masculinities
However, complicity is not so easily defined as pure subordination since marriage, fatherhood, and community life often involve extensive compromises with women rather than simple domination over them.In contemporary American and European culture, [hegemonic masculinity] serves as the standard upon which the "real man" is defined. W.] Connell, contemporary hegemonic masculinity is built on two legs, domination of women and a hierarchy of intermale dominance.It is also shaped to a significant extent by the stigmatization of homosexuality.Hegemonic masculinity draws some of its historical roots from both the fields of social psychology and sociology which contributed to the literature about the male sex role that had begun to recognize the social nature of masculinity and the possibilities of change in men's conduct.This literature preceded the Women's Liberation Movement and feminist theories of patriarchy which also played a strong role in shaping the concept of hegemonic masculinity.Rather, hegemony can operate through the formation of exemplars of masculinity, symbols that have cultural authority despite the fact that most men and boys cannot fully live up to them.Hegemonic masculinity imposes an ideal set of traits which stipulate that a man can never be unfeminine enough.In gender studies, hegemonic masculinity is part of R. Connell's gender order theory, which recognizes multiple masculinities that vary across time, culture and the individual.Hegemonic masculinity is defined as a practice that legitimizes men's dominant position in society and justifies the subordination of the common male population and women, and other marginalized ways of being a man.The core concepts of power and difference were found in the gay liberation movement which had not only sought to analyse the oppression of men but also oppression by men.This idea of a hierarchy of masculinities has since persisted and strongly influenced the reformulation of the concept.