Essay On Circulation

To: - cover a range of heart and vascular physiology at a level beyond that found in standard text books; - develop your understanding of cardiac and vascular function in relation to cellular mechanisms; - apply the above to understand the pathology of various cardiovascular diseases.

At this time, Egyptians believed that the heart was the origin of many channels that connected different parts of the body and transported air as well as urine, blood, and the soul.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus (1700 BCE), named for American Egyptologist Edwin Smith (1822 - 1906 CE) who purchased the scroll in 1862, provided evidence that Egyptians believed that the heartbeat created a pulse that transported the above substances throughout the body. 1550 BCE), also emphasized the importance of the heart and its connection to vessels throughout the body and described methods to detect cardiac disease through pulse abnormalities.

From the left ventricle, the blood passes through the aortic valve to the aorta.

The blood is then distributed to the body through the systemic circulation before returning again to the pulmonary circulation.

The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.

Image showing main pulmonary artery coursing ventrally to the aortic root and trachea, and the right pulmonary artery passes dorsally to the ascending aorta, while the left pulmonary artery passes ventrally to the descending aorta.Deoxygenated blood leaves the heart, goes to the lungs, and then re-enters the heart; Deoxygenated blood leaves through the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery.From the right atrium, the blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve), into the right ventricle.Arteries are further divided into very fine capillaries which are extremely thin-walled.The pulmonary vein returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart.Blood is then pumped from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve and into the main pulmonary artery.The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is picked up during respiration.The fetal lungs are collapsed, and blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale: an open conduit between the paired atria, or through the ductus arteriosus: a shunt between the pulmonary artery and the aorta.When the lungs expand at birth, the pulmonary pressure drops and blood is drawn from the right atrium into the right ventricle and through the pulmonary circuit.This will enable you to grasp a number of areas of experimental, applied and patho-physiology.to: - provide contemporary views on cardiac and vascular function; - relate this knowledge to the human subject; - link the treatment of cardiovascular disease to basic mechanisms; - help you develop independent study skills and teamwork; - facilitate the development of your written and oral communication skills.

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