He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson and Goethe, and soon became a strong critic of Western society's separation of religion from state and what he perceived as its obsession with materialist pursuits.He was especially influenced by Alfred North Whitehead, whom he frequently cited, adapting his process thought to interpret Islam in dynamic terms and to describe Muslims as always progressing towards 'ever-fresh illuminations from an Infinite Reality' that 'every moment appears in new glory' (1930: 123).Muslims, said Iqbal, are destined to become 'co-workers with God' provided that they 'take the initiative' within the eternal "process of progressive change" (1930: 12).Tags: Literature Review On Adoption Of Internet BankingEssay WorksheetsIntroduction For Thesis PresentationThe Secret Garden Film EssayUniversal College Application EssayDriving Range Business Plan
Iqbal was appointed to a readership in Arabic at the Oriental College in Lahore, publishing his first book in Urdu, The Knowledge of Economics in 1903.
In 1905 Iqbal published the patriotic song, Tarana-e-Hind (Song of India).
Following the formation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906, Iqbal was elected to the executive committee of its British chapter in 1908.
Together with two other politicians, Syed Hassan Bilgrami and Syed Ameer Ali, Iqbal sat on the subcommittee which drafted the constitution of the League.
Upon his return to India in 1908, Iqbal took up assistant professorship at the Government College in Lahore, but for financial reasons he relinquished it within a year to practice law.
During this period, Iqbal's personal life was in turmoil.
In 1907, Iqbal traveled to Germany to pursue a doctorate from the Faculty of Philosophy of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität at Munich.
Working under the supervision of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published a thesis titled: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia.
At Sir Thomas's encouragement, Iqbal traveled to and spend many years studying in Europe.
He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from Trinity College at Cambridge in 1907, while simultaneously studying law at Lincoln's Inn, from where he qualified as a barrister in 1908.