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From these hypotheses, predictions about specific events are derived (e.g., "People who study a word list while listening to vocal music will remember fewer words on a later memory test than people who study a word list in silence.").These predictions can then be tested with a suitable experiment.
Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively.
Quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data).
For example, a thermometer will not display different temperatures for each individual who observes it.
Temperature, as measured by an accurate, well calibrated thermometer, is empirical evidence.
In some fields, quantitative research may begin with a research question (e.g., "Does listening to vocal music during the learning of a word list have an effect on later memory for these words? Usually, a researcher has a certain theory regarding the topic under investigation.
Based on this theory, statements or hypotheses will be proposed (e.g., "Listening to vocal voice has a negative effect on learning a word list.").
Several typologies for such designs have been suggested, one of the most popular of which comes from Campbell and Stanley.
They are responsible for popularizing the widely cited distinction among pre-experimental, experimental, and quasi-experimental designs and are staunch advocates of the central role of randomized experiments in educational research.
Depending on the outcomes of the experiment, the theory on which the hypotheses and predictions were based will be supported or not, The term empirical was originally used to refer to certain ancient Greek practitioners of medicine who rejected adherence to the dogmatic doctrines of the day, preferring instead to rely on the observation of phenomena as perceived in experience.
Later empiricism referred to a theory of knowledge in philosophy which adheres to the principle that knowledge arises from experience and evidence gathered specifically using the senses.