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And what glory to God, what advantage to men, could accrue from these apparitions?
Every body talks of apparitions of angels and demons, and of souls separated from the body.
We have not the least doubt that their apparitions are the work of the demon, if they are real.
(1727).1 James Sutherland was rather dismissive of these works: they were only potboilers, books banking on people’s interest in the supernatural and the sensational; at any rate, they were an anomaly in Defoe’s corpus.2 This was also the opinion of scholars who were intent on stressing the “modernity” of Defoe.3 His demonological treatises did not fit in with their perception of Defoe as a down-to-earth, forward-looking, Lockean writer. Novak and, more recently, Katherine Clark, have taken Defoe’s occult treatises seriously, and looked upon them as reliable expositions of Defoe’s views on the supernatural as well as a key to understanding the supernatural elements in his fictional works.4 (1719) and its second sequel, which contained Crusoe’s “vision of the angelick world”.5 In the 1720s, when Defoe’s occult works were published, heterodox religious views were flourishing. Following in the footsteps of John Toland, Anthony Collins, William Wollaston and others launched what Maximillian Novak has called ”the great deistic offensive of the 1720s”.6 Meanwhile, heresies such as Socinianism or Arianism were still thriving, as the writings of Samuel Clarke, William Whiston, and several other authors testified, not to mention religious scepticism and even “atheism”, which were also making some headway.
As a result, they tended to overlook these works or, at least, to downplay their significance. To Defoe, it seemed that traditional Protestantism was under threat.
Brite, John Ajvide Lindqvist, Stephenie Meyer, and numerous others reinterpreting, modifying, and elaborating upon the myths and conventions set in place earlier by writers such as Polidori, Le Fanu, and Stoker.
Dissertations On The Apparitions Of Angels How To Make A Research Paper Outline
Appearing and reappearing in fiction at specific historical junctures, the fictional vampire is inflected with a particular set of cultural, political, and economic meanings.
Though the monstrous figures to which these Romantic poets give form are not always vampiric in the most recognizable sense of the term, they do, nonetheless, possess some of the uncanny features that later 19th-century fictional vampires would come to portray.
Several Romantic-era writers were influenced by the discussion of vampires in Dom Augustin Calmet’s Dissertations sur les apparitions des anges, des demons et des esprits, et sur les revenants et vampires de Hongrie, de Bôheme, de Moravie, et de Silésie (1746).
Calmet’s tract was translated into English and published in London as Calmet 1759.
Huet 1997 provides a good account of Calmet’s dissertation, as well as its relation to a number of other important 18th-century French studies of vampires.