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The transparent epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the palisade mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place.In the light-dependent reactions, one molecule of the pigment chlorophyll absorbs one photon and loses one electron.This is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms.
Composite image showing the global distribution of photosynthesis, including both oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial vegetation.
Dark red and blue-green indicate regions of high photosynthetic activity in the ocean and on land, respectively.
In the Calvin cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into already existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate (Ru BP).
Using the ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, the resulting compounds are then reduced and removed to form further carbohydrates, such as glucose.
Nutrients used in cellular respiration include carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids. plastoglobule (drop of lipids) In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts.
These nutrients are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, and to release chemical energy to drive the organism's metabolism. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space.The cells in the interior tissues of a leaf, called the mesophyll, can contain between 450,000 and 800,000 chloroplasts for every square millimeter of leaf.The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of water and decreases the absorption of ultraviolet or blue light to reduce heating.Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities.This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen.Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation; photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration: while photosynthesis is a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular respiration is the oxidation of carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide.In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system.During the second stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon dioxide. Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll.In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product.Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs.