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The next dynasty worth a mention is that of the Guptas.Although the Gupta Empire was not as large as the Maurya Empire, it kept North India politically united for more than a century from AD 335 to 455. The decline of the Guptas in North India, and the consequent rise of a large but ineffective number of regional powers made the political situation very fluid and unstable by the ninth century AD.
Ancient Geographers referred to India as being "constituted with a four-fold conformation" (chatuh samasthana samsthitam), "on its South and West and East is the Great Ocean, the Himavat range stretches along its north like the string of a bow".
The name Himavat in the above passage refers not only to the snow-capped ranges of the Himalayas but also to their less elevated offshoots - the Patkai, Lushai and Chittagong Hills in the east, and the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges in the west.
Under him, large parts of India came under Muslim rule and very soon his successor Qutub-ud-din Aibak became the first of the sultans of Delhi.
His was followed by the rule of the Khaljis and Tughlaq, also known as the Delhi Sultanate, who ruled over a large portion of North India and parts of South India until the coming in of the Lodis and Sayyids. buildings, which resulted in some of the greatest architecture in India, like the Taj Mahal at Agra.
Listen to the seers and the folklorists, to the waters of the perennial rivers and the echoes from the immortal gigantic mountains.
Look at the personifications of prayer carved out of marble or stone, and lie under a banyan tree, and listen - Listen to India.Even today, when urban India is racing against time, in the caves of the snow-clad peaks, live hermits - seeking the divine.Not a surprise when you consider that even this century has seen some great philosophers like Ramana Maharishi, Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramhansa and J. As the juggernaut of world history rolled on, many civilisations rose and fell and passed into oblivion but the spirit of India remains eternal and invincible, unscathed by the onslaught of Time.The decline of the Mughals saw the corresponding rise of Marathas in Western India.In other parts of India, however, a new trend of foreign invasion under the garb of commercial links had started from the 15th century AD onwards - first, with the arrival and gradual takeover of Goa by the Portuguese led by Vasco da Gama - between 14 AD; and then with the arrival, and the setting up of the first trading post at Surat, in Gujarat, by the East India Company.Indians love these peaks because they are a part of every Indian's life.Indians revere the mountains, as they would, the father.This apart, the large number of forts, palaces, gates, buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well) gardens, etc, forms the cultural heritage of the Mughals in India.The Mughals were also instrumental in establishing one of the most efficient administrative setups in India.This civilisation, which lasted for 1000 years, and is known as the Harappan culture, appears to have been the culmination of thousands of years of settlement. From around 1500 BC onwards, Aryan tribes from Afghanistan and Central Asia began to filter into northwest India.Eventually these tribes were able to control the whole of Northern India, and many of the original inhabitants, the Dravidians, were pushed into south India.