Critical thinking has been described in many ways, but researchers generally agree that critical thinking involves rational, purposeful, and goal-directed thinking (see Defining Critical Thinking). Halpern defined critical thinking as an attempt to increase the probability of a desired outcome (e.g., making a sound decision, successfully solving a problem) by using certain cognitive skills and strategies.Critical thinking is more than just a collection of skills and strategies: it is a disposition toward engaging with problems.Tags: Character Analysis Essays Pride PrejudiceCollege Essays On LeadershipCause And Effect Essay On Music CensorshipHomework VideosHuman Resource Management Essay Questions And AnswersCreative Essay Writing Tips
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2007 was written specifically to address critical thinking in psychology.
Those interested in a historical reference are referred to Ennis 1962, which is credited by some as renewing contemporary interest in critical thinking.
What is reportedly true of psychologists as a group?
The phrase became popular among educators in the 1950s, but in 1998 psychologist Diane Halpern said critical thinking was "more important than ever" for today's students (Halpern, 1998).What is the "weak spot" in education for critical thinking?For somebody without higher education, how can one explain the nature of scientific evidence?Critical thinkers are flexible, open-minded, persistent, and willing to exert mental energy working on tough problems.Unlike poor thinkers, critical thinkers are willing to admit they have made an error in judgment if confronted with contradictory evidence, and they operate on autopilot much less than poor thinkers (see Critical Thinking Dispositions).For psychologists teaching critical thinking courses to a general audience, Halpern 2003, an empirically based textbook, covers a wide range of topics; a new edition is expected soon.Fisher 2001 is also intended for general audiences and teaches a wide variety of critical thinking skills.Many among the public have not yet learned that what makes science special is that evidence has to meet certain standards.All the critical thinking instruction in the world will not help people distinguish between true and false claims if they do not have a grasp of what constitutes .Most encourage their students to practice critical thinking.Critical thinking does not necessarily mean making criticisms. It means developing intellectual tools to avoid being gullible or easily taken in by false claims or "quack" science (highly questionable or absurd ideas presented as though they are scientific truths).