Biological factors do not create as much as a susceptibility to Postpartum mood disorders as psychological and social factors.
In a controlled re-test study of psychological, environmental, and hormonal variables of Postpartum Mood Disorders, O’Hara et al.
Symptoms include low mood, anxiety, crying, irritability, insomnia, and mood lability.
Because of its commonality, it is viewed as a ‘normal’ phenomenon. At the other end of the spectrum is Postpartum psychosis, a rare illness only affecting 2 out of every 1000 women who give birth (APA, 2000).
Additionally, it will encourage funding for researchers investigating perinatal mood disorders incidence and initiation” (Stone, 2010).
Sudi, 29, is a married caucasian mother of two girls living in an affluent community in Maryland. Postpartum Depression also referred to as Postpartum Major Depression (PMD), “occurs in approximately 10 percent of childbearing women and may begin anywhere between 14 hours to several months after delivery” (Epperson, 1999). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(2), 180-186. PPD exhibits all the typical symptoms of depression, but is distinguished by its manifestation after the childbirth. Vulnerability coupled with life stress predicated the diagnosis of depression” (p. Vulnerability speaks to the psychological theories of PPD which according to the cognitive model, “a patients negative view of the world and herself leads to depression and low self-esteem and disturb relationships” (Leopold & Zoschnick, 1995). “Three correlates of PPD are consistently found by researchers: marriage problems and lack of social support, particularly the father’s, infant problems, including pregnancy and delivery problems, and a prior history of depression or other emotional problems (Hagen, 1996). (1991) found that “stress interactions accounted for very significant proportions of the variance in the depression outcome. Hobfoll, S., Ritter, C., Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M., & Cameron, R. Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. There was very little association between hormonal variables and postpartum depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 445-453. Iranfar, S., Shakeri, J., Ranjbar, M., Nazhadjafar, P., & Razaie, M. Is unintended pregnancy a risk for depression in Iranian women? Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 11(4), 618-624). There are three degrees of PPD that can be experienced by a woman after childbirth: 1) “baby blues” which the DSM classifies as Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (309.0) or with Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood (309.28) and which resolves without significant consequences; 2) postpartum depression or Major Depressive Disorder, and; 3) postpartum psychosis, Mood Disorder with Psychotic features (296.x4) or Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (298.9). women who give birth experience postpartum blues” (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologist, 1999). As the focus of this paper is Postpartum Depression, it is vital to differentiate the degrees of PPD. The ‘baby blues’ is characterized by mild and transient mood disturbances with an onset of 1-7 days postpartum with a peak between day 5-6 postpartum. Her and her husband Yao, who is Chinese-American both worked full-time until Sudi became pregnant with their second child, Emma. Sudi first pregnancy went smoothly and she experienced no complications.