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One who has a condition and the other that does not.
These types of studies, along with randomised controlled trials, constitute analytical studies, whereas case reports and case series define descriptive studies (1).
Although these studies are not ranked as highly as randomised controlled trials, they can provide strong evidence if designed appropriately. They clearly define two groups at the start: one the outcome/disease.
A case-control study is a research design used by researchers where the research begins with an outcome in order to comprehend the cause. These studies are mostly used in a range of disciplines.
In a case-control study, there are two groups of people.
Case-Control Study: A case-control study is also an observational study. Case-Control Study: Controls and cases are chosen at the beginning.
Case-control and cohort studies are observational studies that lie near the middle of the hierarchy of evidence.
This can suggest associations between the risk factor and development of the disease in question, although no definitive causality can be drawn. Cases should be selected based on objective inclusion and exclusion criteria from a reliable source such as a disease registry.
The main outcome measure in case-control studies is odds ratio (OR). An inherent issue with selecting cases is that a certain proportion of those with the disease would not have a formal diagnosis, may not present for medical care, may be misdiagnosed or may have died before getting a diagnosis.
Based on these, the researcher chooses a research design that will be most appropriate for the study.
A cohort study is a research design where the researcher studies a group of people, also known as a cohort, for a longer period of time.