Augmentation Research Papers

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The development of techniques for recording and stimulating neural activity has produced a revolution in the ability to understand the cognitive mechanisms related to perception, memory, attention, and the planning and execution of actions.

However, whether or not these techniques can realistically be used for cognitive augmentation depends not only on how effective they are at detecting interpretable neural activity and/or stimulating specific target areas of the brain, but also on a number of other relevant factors. doi: 10.1109/86.847815 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kennedy, P.

Among these is the degree of invasiveness—i.e., to what extent a technology requires introduction of instruments into the body—as well as other practical factors, including how portable or expensive technologies are, which influence their usability in everyday life for human cognitive augmentation.

In the following sections we will review these technologies with their pros and cons.

Such processes encompass attention, the formation of knowledge, memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision making, as well as the comprehension and production of language.

For these reasons, unlike previous efforts, here we choose to review applications of these technologies by the cognitive function they augment (more on this below). In section 2, we survey the main neuroscience technologies for both observing and influencing brain activity, which are necessary ingredients for human cognitive augmentation. “Detection of anticipatory brain potentials during car driving,” in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE (San Diego, CA: IEEE), 3829–3832. For space limitations, we will not discuss in details the principles of these technologies. Direct control of a computer from the human central nervous system. However, for each technique we will indicate to what degree it has helped in relation to human cognitive augmentation, leaving a more extensive description of the actual applications to section 3. These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials. Based on the lessons learnt in our analysis and using past trends as predictors of future ones, in section 5 we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues. These have made this technology suitable for human cognitive augmentation applications (Coyle et al., 2007; Ayaz et al., 2013; Mc Kendrick et al., 2014; Naseer and Hong, 2015), especially when paired with brain stimulation technologies, for example, to enhance spatial working memory (Mc Kendrick et al., 2015). However, f NIRS has a low spatial and temporal resolutions. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Iturrate, I., Montesano, L., and Minguez, J. “Shared-control brain-computer interface for a two dimensional reaching task using EEG error-related potentials,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS (Osaka), 5258–5262. Our aim here is providing a snapshot of the current state of the art of neuroscience technologies for human cognitive enhancement and a motivated forecast of their most likely developments in the next two decades. Facilitation of probabilistic classification learning by transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in the human. doi: 10.1016/s0028-3932(03)00124-6 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar King-Casas, B., Tomlin, D., Anen, C., Camerer, C. Here, by cognitive enhancement we mean the improvement of the processes of acquiring/generating knowledge and understanding the world around us. Secondly, we chart the state of the art on neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation, keeping an eye both on the applications that already exist and those that are emerging or are likely to emerge in the next two decades. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00025 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Krause, B., Márquez-Ruiz, J., and Cohen Kadosh, R. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation: a role for cortical excitation/inhibition balance? Particularly, we consider applications in the areas of communication, cognitive enhancement, memory, attention monitoring/enhancement, situation awareness and complex problem solving, and we look at what fraction of the population might benefit from such technologies and at the demands they impose in terms of user training.

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