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In wired networks, routers can only leave or join the network by human intervention.In an environment with mobile nodes moving constantly, the changing topology will not only cause continuous re-computation of routes but the overall convergence to stable routes may be infeasible due to the high-level of mobility and will also cause the network become congested by routing information packets .Moreover, control information in the network is very restricted.
Routing protocols for MANETs must deal with these issues to be effective.
So our goal in this paper is to try to apply the ant-colony optimization technique, that has proved its effectiveness in wired networks routing protocols ,to optimize the existing MANET routing protocols.
mobile ad-hoc network (MANET); routing; ant colony optimization; load balancing The problem of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) can be summarized in the answer of this question: how to find the route between the communicating end-points.
One of the main reasons is that routing in MANETs is a particularly challenging task due to the fact that the topology of the network changes constantly and paths which were initially efficient can quickly become inefficient or even infeasible.
In Section 4, we explain the new routing algorithm (MRAA) in detail.
In Section 5, we show some simulation results to show the ability of the ACO to improve routing performance.It is therefore important to design algorithms that are adaptive, robust and self-healing.Moreover, they should work in a localized way, due to the lack of central control or infrastructure in the network [5,7].Thus routing is a crucial issue to the design of a MANET .Routing algorithms in wired networks are usually based upon either the well-known distance vector or link state routing algorithms.These algorithms need frequent routing advertisements messages to be broadcasted by each router, which allow the announcement of new routes to other routers in the network.In distance vector routing , each router broadcasts to only its neighboring routers the distance to all other nodes, then upon receiving this information the neighboring routers recompute the shortest path to each node.optimization problems, including MANET [10,25,28]). To show that the approach of load balancing has the potential to be applied to optimize the proposed MRAA MANET protocol, we have taken the implementation of MRAA then applied a load balancing technique to MRAA.Results are also based on simulations made with OPNET Modeler V.14 .It considers the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation.The interesting point is that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment.