The anti-inflammatory study of the extracts showed statistically significant (PCrude saponin extracts of five medicinal plants used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, gout and haemorrhoids were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was used to give the following percentage yields: WSA-2.74%, RAA-3.59%, LDC-1.62%, BFI-0.81% and LIP-1.57% respectively.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids are the most common drugs used to treat inflammation.
Gastrointestinal side effect is a major side effect associated with the currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which limit their application.
With this knowledge, we wondered about the identities of these bacteria.
It was an opportune time to ask this question as the powerful next-generation sequencing tools, such as Illumina sequencing were becoming widely available at that time.
At that time, little was known about the LA variants produced by , another immune-boosting herb.
The observation of endotoxic LAs in different immune-boosting herbs raised a possibility that plant metabolites might attenuate undesirable immunological effects of endotoxic LAs, thereby making the immune-boosting herbs safe for human consumption.
Thin-layer chromatography was used to identify the type of saponins present in the extracts.
The acute toxicity study of the crude saponin extracts in mice gave the following intraperitoneal LD50: WSA-471.2mg/kg, RAA- 1264.9mg/kg, LDC-1264.9 mg/kg, BFI-118.3mg/kg and LIP-1264.9 mg/kg respectively.
The ensuing studies presented in this thesis as well as several studies by others gave rise to an emerging new hypothesis that can fundamentally transform the way we understand the immune-boosting activity of medicinal plants.
Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction and history of the most widely accepted herbal medicinal practices around the world.