Aiyaz Khaiyum Thesis

However, the political instability currently experienced in Fiji provides challenges to the coalitions in advocacy efforts and issues pertaining to FMRP have become politicized.

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Cairney [10] further explained that ACF is appropriate to describe a complex policymaking environment where numerous actors from the various levels of government, makes decisions regardless of high levels of vagueness and uncertainty, the period to make decisions are usually long, for instance, a decade or sometimes even more, and addresses policy by using very different means.

Some policy issues contain severely politicized disagreements comprising numerous actors.

The developed research questions with the chosen, constructed conceptual framework will reduce the existing gaps in academic and policy literature.

The Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) is a framework of the policy process formulated by Sabatier [8] to address “wicked” problems particularly those that involves with conflicting goals, disputable critical technical issues, and numerous actors from different government levels [9].

Thirdly, public programs and policies can develop into belief systems where the sets of value significances and determines the various presumptions on the manner to understand them [8].

In describing core beliefs of coalitions that keep the actors together, Sabatier [12] further described the core beliefs of advocacy coalitions into three main types.Through these interactions, coalitions can obtain the best expositions to solve the dilemma of the various components and elements that are required to be captured in the FMRP.In achieving these, the agenda setting for formulating FMRP is definitely attainable.To be influential in the policy subsystem requires actors to continuously pursue policy issues, such as the Fiji Mineral Royalty Policy components; (b) policy actors possess very strong beliefs and are inspired to interpret beliefs into legitimate policy; (c) takes as long as a decade and sometime even more for a policy change to occur and actors are normally resistant; and lastly, (d) advocacy coalitions are formed by actors who possess same core policy beliefs and synchronizes in a nontrivial manner [12].Furthermore, Sabatier [8] explains ACF as the framework that is comprised of three fundamental principles.Others are considered as technical and processed regularly, mainly by policy experts, outside of public attention [10].As emphasized by Sabatier and Weible [11], the main characteristics of ACF include the following: (a) producing policies in modernized societies is very complicated, practically and legitimately and actors must be experts and also influential.From the current revenue earned from mining, only land leases have been paid out to landowners and no royalty payments as yet, because there are no specific guidelines to determine the distributions.These have brought about the great need to determine the fair share of mineral royalties between the Fiji Government and the landowners in Fiji.The structure and the rates of mineral royalties vary in different countries; however, the reason to collect mineral royalties is to repay the mineral resources owners for the extraction of minerals from the land and the royalty entitlement has become more complex over the years because of mineral rights and ownerships [1].Due to the complexity of mineral rights ownership and the issue of appropriate mineral royalty entitlements, determining the fair share of mineral royalties between the Fiji government and the resource owners is most imperative.

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