Many receptors, cytokines, chemokines and other proinflammatory mediators are implicated, and nutrition, the skin microbiome and genetics of both the patient and the bacteria living in the follicle may also be involved triggers the innate immune response by activating toll-like receptors (TLRs — gatekeepers in the immune response) on the surface of keratinocytes and immune cells such as monocytes, causing the release of inflammatory cytokines.
More recently, a second gatekeeper called the NLRP3 inflammasome (a multi-protein component of the innate immune system) was also shown to be activated, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β possibly could be treated by selectively targeting IL-1β or TLRs.“We need small molecules acting upstream or downstream of IL-1β, oral or preferably topical,” says Anton Alexandroff, consultant dermatologist and spokesperson for London-based charity British Skin Foundation.
Acne lesions are commonly referred to as pimples or zits.
The condition is most common in puberty, especially among Western societies most likely due to a higher genetic predisposition.
There is also evidence that tetracycline antibiotics can inhibit the activity of neutrophils and destructive enzymes called metalloproteases, both linked to acne inflammation and scarring, says Orlow.
Approaches specifically targeting the inflammasome and IL-1β, however, are still mostly at an early stage of investigation.
Isotretinoin is also extremely teratogenic, and so, has to be prescribed and taken with great caution.
Although many of the medications work well if used properly, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success Figure 1: Acne pathogenesis Acne is characterised by inflammation of the pilosebaceous units caused by the interplay of four key factors: excessive sebum secretion, hyperkeratinisation, colonisation of The good news is that scientific advances in the understanding of acne complexity are revealing new targets for development.
In an analysis of one of the largest electronic medical records databases in the world, researchers found that patients with acne had a significantly increased risk of developing major depression, ...
People who have previously suffered from acne are likely to have longer telomeres (the protective repeated nucleotides found at the end of chromosomes) in their white blood cells, meaning their cells ...