Had Roosevelt and other members of his administration known of the attack in advance, they would have been foolish to sacrifice one of the major instruments needed to win the war just to get the United States into it." Furthermore, on 5 November 1941, in a joint memo, Stark, CNO, and Marshall, Army Chief of Staff, warned, "if Japan be defeated and Germany remain undefeated, decision will still not have been reached....
War between the United States and Japan should be avoided...." Additionally, in a 21 November 1941 memo, Brigadier Leonard T.
I myself did not think of it because I believed everyone on Honolulu to be 100% on the alert, as everyone here on O. As he waited outside the Oval Office, Murrow observed government and military officials entering and leaving.
He wrote after the war: There was ample opportunity to observe at close range the bearing and expression of Mr. If they were not surprised by the news from Pearl Harbor, then that group of elderly men were putting on a performance which would have excited the admiration of any experienced actor. It may be that the degree of the disaster had appalled them and that they had known for some time….
These authors assert that Roosevelt was imminently expecting and seeking war, but wanted Japan to take the first overtly aggressive action.
One perspective is given by Rear Admiral Frank Edmund Beatty Jr., who at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack was an aide to the Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox and was very close to President Franklin D.
It is a travesty of history ever to say that America was forced into the war. It is incorrect to say that America was truly neutral even before America came into the war on an all-out basis." How this demonstrates anything with regard to Japan is unclear. Lend-Lease, enacted in March 1941, informally declared the end of American neutrality in favor of the Allies by agreeing to supply Allied nations with war materials. When considering information like this as a point for or against, the reader must keep in mind questions such as: was this official privy to information about the U. Toland cited entries from the diary of Rear Admiral J. Meijer Ranneft of the Dutch Navy for 2 December and 6 December. According to Toland, Ranneft wrote that he was told by ONI that two Japanese carriers were northwest of Honolulu.
In addition, Roosevelt authorized a so-called Neutrality Patrol, which would protect the merchantmen of one nation, namely Britain, from attack by another, Germany. destroyers to report U-boats, then later authorized them to "shoot on sight". However, the diary uses the Dutch abbreviation be W, meaning "westerly", contradicting Toland's claim.
A more complete account was not made publicly available until the mid-1980s, and not published until 1992 as Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement. Some regard it as a valuable addition to understanding the events, while one historian noted Clausen did not speak to General Walter Short, Army commander at Pearl Harbor during the attack, and called Clausen's investigation "notoriously unreliable" in several aspects.
Some authors argue that US President Roosevelt was actively provoking Japan in the weeks prior to the Pearl Harbor attack.